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IAS 18 International Accounting Standard 18 Revenue This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 17 January 2008. IAS 18 Revenue was issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in December 1993. It replaced IAS 18 Revenue Recognition (issued in December 1982). Limited amendments to IAS 18 were made as a consequence of IAS 39 (in 1998), IAS 10 (in 1999) and IAS 41 (in January 2001). In April 2001 the International Accounting Standards Board resolved that all Standards and Interpretations issued under previous Constitutions continued to be applicable unless and until they were amended or withdrawn. Since then IAS 18 has been amended by the following IFRSs: 9 3S • I Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement (as revised in December 2003) 4S R F• I Insurance Contracts (issued March 2004). IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statement(as revised in September 2007) amended the terminology used throughout IFRSs, including IAS 18. The following Interpretations refer to IAS 18: 3 1 - C I S Jointly Controlled Entities—Non-Monetary Contributions by Venturers (issued December 1998 and subsequently amended) 7 2 - C I S Evaluating the Substance of Transactions involving the Legal Form of a Lease (issued December 2001 and subsequently amended) 1 3 - C I S Revenue—Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services (issued December 2001 and subsequently amended) 2 1C I R F• I Service Concession Arrangements (issued November 2006 and subsequently amended) 3 1C I R F• I Customer Loyalty Programmes (issued June 2007). © IASCF 1185 IAS 18 C ONTENTS paragraphs INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 18 REVENUE OBJECTIVE SCOPE 1–6 DEFINITIONS 7–8 MEASUREMENT OF REVENUE 9–12 IDENTIFICATION OF THE TRANSACTION 13 SALE OF GOODS 14–19 RENDERING OF SERVICES 20–28 INTEREST, ROYALTIES AND DIVIDENDS 29–34 DISCLOSURE 35–36 EFFECTIVE DATE 37 APPENDIX 1186 ©IASCF IAS 18 International Accounting Standard 18 Revenue (IAS18)issetoutinparagraphs1–37. All the paragraphs have equal authority bu t retain the IASC fo rmat of the Standard when it was adopted by the IASB. IAS 18 should be read in the context of its objective, the Preface to International Financial Reporting Standardsand theFramework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statement. IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies in the absence of explicit guidance. © IASCF 1187 IAS 18 International Accounting Standard 18 Revenue Objective Income is defined in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements as increases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of inflows or enhancements of assets or decreases of liabilities that result in increases in equity, other than those relating to contributions from equity participants. Income encompasses both revenue and gains. Revenue is income that arises in the course of ordinary activities of an entity and is referred to by a variety of different names including sales, fees, interest, dividends and royalties. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment of revenue arising from certain types of transactions and events. The primary issue in accounting for revenue is determining when to recognise revenue. Revenue is recognised when itis probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity andthese benefits can be measured reliably. This Standard identifies the circumstances in which these criteria will be met and, therefore, revenue will be recognised. It also provides practical guidance on the application of these criteria. Scope 1 This Standard shall be applied in accounting for revenue arising from the following transactions and events: (a) the sale of goods; (b) the rendering of services; and (c) the use by others of entity assets yielding interest, royalties and dividends. 2 This Standard supersedes IAS 18 Revenue Recognition approved in 1982. 3 Goods includes goods produc ed by the entity for the purpose of sale and goods purchased for resale, such as merchandis e purchased by a retailer or land and other property held for resale. 4 The rendering of services typically invo lves the performance by the entity of a contractuallyagreedtaskoveranagreedperiodoftime. Theservicesmaybe rendered within a single period or over more than oneperiod. Some contracts for the rendering of services are directly related to construction contracts, for example, those for the services of project managers and architects. Revenue arising from these contracts is not dealt with in this Standard but is dealt with in accordance with the requirements for construction contracts as specified in IAS 11 Construction Contracts. 5 The use by others of entity assets gives rise to revenue in the form of: (a) interest—charges for the use of cash or cash equivalents or amounts due to the entity; 1188 © IASCF IAS 18 (b) royalties—charges for the use of long-term assets of the entity, for example, patents, trademarks, copyrights and computer software; and (c) dividends—distributions of profits to holders of equity investments in proportion to their holdings of a particular class of capital. 6 This Standard does not deal with revenue arising from: (a) lease agreements (see IAS 17 Leases); (b) dividends arising from investments which are accounted for under the equity method (see IAS 28 Investments in Associates); (c) insurance contracts within the scope of IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts; (d) changes in the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities or their disposal (see IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement); (e) changes in the value of other current assets; (f) initial recognition and from changes in the fair value of biological assets related to agricultural activity (see IAS 41 Agriculture); (g) initial recognition of agricultural produce (see IAS 41); and (h) the extraction of mineral ores. Definitions 7 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified: Revenue is the gross inflow of economic benefits during the period arising in the courseoftheordinaryactivitiesof an entity when those inflows result in increases in equity, other than increase s relating to contributions from equity participants. Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction. 8 Revenue includes only the gross inflow s of economic bene fits received and receivable by the entity on its own account. Amounts collected on behalf of third parties such as sales taxes, goods and services taxes and value added taxes are not economic benefits which fl ow to the entity and do not result in increases in equity. Therefore, they are excluded from revenue. Similarly, in an agency relationship, the gross infl ows of economic benefits include amounts collected on behalf of the principal and which do not result in increases in equity for the entity. The amounts collected on behalf of the principal are not revenue. Instead, revenue is the amount of commission. Measurement of revenue 9 Revenue shall be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. * * See also SIC-31 Revenue—Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services ©IASCF 1189 IAS 18 10 The amount of revenue arising on a transaction is usually determined by agreement between the entity and the buyer or user of the asset. It is measured at the fair value of the co nsideration received or receivable taking into account the amount of any trade discounts and volume rebates allowed by the entity. 11 In most cases, the consideration is in the form of cash or cash equivalents and the amount of revenue is the amount of cash or cash equivalents received or receivable. However, when the inflow of cash or cash equivalents is deferred, the fair value of the consideration may be less than the nominal amount of cash received or receivable. For example, an entity may provide interest free credit to the buyer or accept a note receivable be aring a below-market interest rate from the buyer as consideration for the sale of goods. When the arrangement effectively constitutes a financing transaction, the fair value of the consideration is determined by discounting all future receipts using an imputed rate of interest. The imputed rate of interest is the more clearly determinable of either: (a) the prevailing rate for a similar instrument of an issuer with a similar credit rating; or (b) a rate of interest that discounts the nominal amount of the instrument to the current cash sales price of the goods or services. The difference between the fair value and the nominal amount of the consideration is recognised as interestrevenue in accordance with paragraphs 29 and 30 and in accordance with IAS 39. 12 When goods or services areexchanged or swapped for goods or services which are of a similar nature and value, the exchangeis not regarded asa transaction which generates revenue. This is often the case with commodities like oil or milk where suppliers exchange or swap inventories invarious locations to fulfil demand on a timely basis in a particular location. When goods are sold or services are rendered in exchange for dissimilar goods or se rvices, the exchange is regarded as a transaction which generates revenue. The revenue is me asured at the fair value of the goods or services received, adjust ed by the amount of any cash or cash equivalents transferred. When the fair value of the goods or services received cannot be measured reliably, the revenue is measured at the fair value of the goods or services given up, adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalents transferred. Identification of the transaction 13 The recognition criteria in this Standa rd are usually applied separately to each transaction. However, in certain circum stances, it is necessary to apply the recognition criteria to the separately identifiable components of a single transaction in order to reflect the substance of the transaction. For example, when the selling price of a product in cludes an identifi able amount for subsequent servicing, that amount is deferred and recognised as revenue over the period during which the service is performed. Conversely, the recognition criteria are applied to two or more transactions together when they are linked in such a way that the commercial effect cannot be understood without reference to 1190 © IASCF IAS 18 the series of transactions as a whole. For example, an entity may sell goods and, at the same time, enter into a separate agreement to repurchase the goods at a later date, thus negating the substantive effect of the transaction; in such a case, the two transactions are dealt with together. Sale of goods 14 Revenue from the sale of goods shall be recognised when all the following conditions have been satisfied: (a) the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods; (b) the entity retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold; (c) the amount of revenue can be measured reliably; (d) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and (e) the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably. 15 The assessment of when an entity has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer requires an examination of the circumstances of the transaction. In most cases, the transfer of the risks and rewards of ownership coincides with the transfer of the legal title or the passing of possession to the buyer. This is the case for most retail sales. In other cases, the transfer of risks and reward s of ownership occurs at a different time from the transfer of legal title or the passing of possession. 16 If the entity retains significant risks ofownership, the transaction is not a sale and revenue is not recognised. An entity mayretain a significant risk of ownership in a number of ways. Examples of situatio ns in which the entity may retain the significant risks and rewards of ownership are: (a) when the entity retains an obligation for unsatisfactory performance not covered by normal warranty provisions; (b) when the receipt of the revenue from a particular sale is contingent on the derivation of revenue by the buyer from its sale of the goods; (c) when the goods are shipped subject to installation and the installation is a significant part of the contract which has not yet been completed by the entity; and (d) when the buyer has the right to rescind the purchase for a reason specified in the sales contract and the entity is uncertain about the probability of return. 17 If an entity retains only an insignificant risk of owne rship, the transaction is a sale and revenue is recognised. For example, a seller may retain the legal title to the goods solely to protect the collectibility of the amount due. In such a case, if the entity has tr ansferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership, the © IASCF 1191 IAS 18 transaction is a sale and revenue is re cognised. Another example of an entity retaining only an insignificant risk of ownership may be a retail sale when a refund is offered if the customer is not satisfied. Revenue in such cases is recognisedatthetimeofsaleprovidedthesellercanreliablyestimatefuture returns and recognises a liability for re turns based on previous experience and other relevant factors. 18 Revenueisrecognisedonlywhenitisprobablethattheeconomicbenefits associated with the transaction will flow tothe entity. In some cases, this may not be probable until the consideration is received or until an uncertainty is removed. For example, it may be uncertain that a foreign governmental authority will grant permission to remit the considerat ion from a sale in a foreign country. When the permission is granted, the unce rtainty is remove d and revenue is recognised. However, when an uncertaint y arises about the collectibility of an amount already included in revenue, the uncollectible amount or the amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable is recognised as an expense, rather than as an adjustment of the amount of revenue originally recognised. 19 Revenue and expenses that relate to the same transaction or other event are recognised simultaneously; this process is commonly referred to as the matching of revenues and expenses. Expenses, including warranties and other costs to be incurred after the shipment of the goods can normally be measured reliably when the other conditions for the recognition of revenue have been satisfied. However, revenue cannot be recognised when the expenses cannot be measured reliably; in such circumstances, any consideration already received for the sale of the goods is recognised as a liability. Rendering of services 20 When the outcome of a transaction involving the rendering of services can be estimated reliably, revenue associated with the transaction shall be recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the transaction at the end of the reporting period. The outcome of a transaction can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied: (a) the amount of revenue can be measured reliably; (b) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; (c) the stage of completion of the tr ansaction at the end of the reporting period can be measured reliably; and (d) the costs incurred for the transaction and the costs to complete the transaction can be measured reliably. * 21 The recognition of revenu e by reference to the stage of completion of a transaction is often referred to as the percentage of completion method. Under this method, revenue is recognised in the accounting periods in which the services are rendered. The recognition of revenue on this basis provides useful * See also SIC-27 Evaluating the Substance of Transactions in the Legal Form of a Lease and SIC-31 Revenue— Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services 1192 © IASCF IAS 18 information on the extent of service activity and performance during a period. IAS 11 also requires the recognition of revenue on this basis. The requirements of that Standard are generall y applicable to the recognition of revenue and the associated expenses for a transaction involving the rendering of services. 22 Revenue is recognised only when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity. However, when an uncertainty arises about th e collectibility of an amount already included in revenue, the uncollectible amount, or th e amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable, is recognis ed as an expense, rather than as an adjustment of the amount of revenue originally recognised. 23 An entity is generally able to make reliable estimates after it has agreed to the following with the other parties to the transaction: (a) each party’s enforceable rights rega rding the service to be provided and received by the parties; (b) the consideration to be exchanged; and (c) the manner and terms of settlement. It is also usually necessary for the entity to have an effective internal financial budgeting and reporting system. The entity reviews and, when necessary, revises the estimates of revenue as the service is performed. The need for such revisions does not necessarily indicate that th e outcome of the transaction cannot be estimated reliably. 24 The stage of completion of a transaction may be determined by a variety of methods. An entity us es the method that measures reliably the services performed. Depending on the nature of the transaction, the methods may include: (a) surveys of work performed; (b) services performed to date as a percentage of total services to be performed; or (c) the proportion that costs incurred to date bear to the estimated total costs ofthe transaction. Only coststhatreflectservicesperformed todateare includedincostsincurredtodate. Onlycoststhatreflectservices performed or to be performed are included in the estimated total costs of the transaction. Progress payments and advances receivedfrom customers often do not reflect the services performed. 25 For practical purposes, when services are performed by an indeterminate number of acts over a specified period of time, revenue is recognised on a straight-line basis over the specified period unless th ere is evidence that some other method better represents the stage of completion. When a specific act is much more significant than any other acts, the recognition of revenue is postponed until the significant act is executed. ©IASCF 1193 IAS 18 26 When the outcome of the transaction involving the rendering of services cannot be estimated reliably, revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of the expenses recognised that are recoverable. 27 During the early stages of a transaction, it is often the case that the outcome of the transaction cannot be estimated reli ably. Nevertheless, it may be probable that the entity will recover the transaction costs incurred. Therefore, revenue is recognised only to the extent of costs incrred that are expected to be recoverable. As the outcome of the transaction cannot be estimated reliably, no profit is recognised. 28 When the outcome of a tran saction cannot be estimated reliably and it is not probable that the costs incurred will be recovered, revenue is not recognised and the costs incurred are recognised as an expense. When the uncertainties that prevented the outcome of the contract be ing estimated reliably no longer exist, revenue is recognised in accordance withparagraph 20 ratherthan in accordance with paragraph 26. Interest, royalties and dividends 29 Revenue arising from the use by others ofentity assets yielding interest, royalties and dividends shall be recognised on the bases set out in paragraph 30 when: (a) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and (b) the amount of the revenue can be measured reliably. 30 Revenue shall be recognised on the following bases: (a) interest shall be recognised using the effective interest method as set out in IAS 39, paragraphs 9 and AG5–AG8; (b) royalties shall be recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement; and (c) dividends shall be recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment is established. 31 [Deleted] 32 When unpaid interest has accrued before the acquisition of an interest-bearing investment, the subsequent receipt of interest is allocated between pre-acquisition and post-acquisition periods; only the post-acquisition portion is recognised as revenue. When dividends on equity securities are declared from pre-acquisition profits, those dividend s are deducted from the cost of the securities. If it is difficult to make such an allocation except on an arbitrary basis, dividends are recognised as revenue unless they clearly represent a recovery of part of the cost of the equity securities. 33 Royalties accrue in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement and are usually recognised on that basis unless, having regard to th e substance of the agreement, it is more appropriate to recognise revenue on some other systematic and rational basis. 1194 ©IASCF IAS 18 34 Revenue is recognised only when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity. However, when an uncertainty arises about th e collectibility of an amount already included in revenue, the uncollectible amount, or th e amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable, is recognis ed as an expense, rather than as an adjustment of the amount of revenue originally recognised. Disclosure 35 An entity shall disclose: (a) the accounting policies adopted for the recognition of revenue, including the methods adopted to determine the stage of completion of transactions involving the rendering of services; (b) the amount of each significant category of revenue recognised during the period, including revenue arising from: (i) the sale of goods; (ii) the rendering of services; (iii) interest; (iv) royalties; (v) dividends; and (c) the amount of revenue arising from exchanges of goods or services included in each significant category of revenue. 36 An entity discloses any contingent liabilities and contingent assets in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabil ities and Contingent Asse. Contingent liabilities and contingent assets may ar ise from items such as warranty costs, claims, penalties or possible losses. Effective date 37 This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1995. ©IASCF 1195 IAS 18 IE Appendix This appendix accompanies, but is not part of, IAS 18. The examples focus on particular aspects of a transaction and are not a comprehensive discussion of all the relevant factors that might influence the recognition of revenue. The examples generally as sume that the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the entity and the costs incurred or to be incurred can be measured reliably. Sale of goods The law in different countries may mean the recognition criteria in this Standard are met at different times. In particular, the law may determine the pointin time at which the entity transfers the significant risks and rewards of ownership. Therefore, the examples in this section of the appendix need to be read in the context of the laws relating to the saleds in the country in which the transaction takes place. 1 ‘Bill and hold’ sales, in which delivery is delayed at the buyer’s request but the buyer takes title and accepts billing. Revenue is recognised when the buyer takes title, provided: (a) it is probable that delivery will be made; (b) the item ison hand, identified and ready for delivery to the buyer at the time the sale is recognised; (c) the buyer specifically acknowledges the deferred delivery instructions; and (d) the usual payment terms apply. Revenue is not recognised when there is simply an intention to acquire or manufacture the goods in time for delivery. 2 Goods shipped subject to conditions. (a) installation and inspection. Revenue is normally recognised when the buyer accepts delivery, and installation and inspection are comple te. However, revenue is recognised immediately upon the buyer’s acceptance of delivery when: (i) the installation process is simple in nature, for example the installation of a factory tested television receiver which only requires unpacking and connection of power and antennae; or (ii) the inspection is performed only for purposes of final determination of contract prices, for example, shipments of iron ore, sugar or soya beans. (b) on approval when the buyer has negotiated a limited right of return. If there is uncertainty about the possibility of return, revenue is recognised when the shipment has been formally accepted by the buyer or the goods have been delivered and the time period for rejection has elapsed. 1196 © IASCF IAS 18 IE (c) consignment sales under which the recipient (buyer) undertakes to sell the goods on behalf of the shipper (seller). Revenue is recognised by the shipper when the goods are sold by the recipient to a third party. (d) cash on delivery sales. Revenue is recognised when delivery is made and cash is received by the seller or its agent. 3 Lay away sales under which the goods are delivered only when the buyer makes the final payment in a series of instalments. Revenue from such sales is recognised when the goods are delivered. However, when experience indicates that most such sales are consummated, revenue may be recognised when a significant deposi t is received provided the goods are on hand, identified and ready for delivery to the buyer. 4 Orders when payment (or partial payment) is re ceived in advance of delivery for goods not presently held in inventory, for example, th e goods are still to be manufactured or will be delivered directly to the customer from a third party. Revenue is recognised when the goods are delivered to the buyer. 5 Sale and repurchase agreements (other than swap transactions) under which the seller concurrently agrees to repurchase the same goods at a later date, or when the seller has a call option to repurchase, or the buyer has a put opti on to require the repurchase, by the seller, of the goods. For a sale and repurchase agreement on an asset other than a financial asset, the terms of the agreement need to be analysed to ascert ain whether, in substance, the seller has transferred the risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer and hence revenue is recognised. When the seller has retained the risks and rewards of ownership, even though legal title ha s been transferred, the transaction is a financing arrangement and does not give rise to revenue. For a sale and repurchase agreement on a financial asset, IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement applies. 6 Sales to intermediate parties, such as distributors, dealers or others for resale. Revenue from such sales is generally recognised when the risks and rewards of ownership have passed. However, when the buyer is acting, in substance, as an agent, the sale is treated as a consignment sale. 7 Subscriptions to publications and similar items. When the items involved are of similar value in each time period, revenue is recognised on a straight-line basis over the period in which the items are despatched. When the items vary in va lue from period to period, revenue is recognised on the basis of the sales value ofthe item despatchedin relation to the total estimated sales value of all items covered by the subscription. © IASCF 1197 IAS 18 IE 8 Instalment sales, under which the consideration is receivable in instalments. Revenue attributable to the sales price, exclusive of interest, is recognised at the date of sale. The sale price is the present value of the consideration, determined by discounting the instalments receivable at the imputed rate of interest. The interest element is recognised as revenue as it is earned, using the effective interest method. 9 Real estate sales. Revenue is normally recognised when legal title passes to the buyer. However, in some jurisdictions the equitable interest in a property may vest in the buyer before legal title passes and therefore the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred at that stage. In such cases, provided that the seller has no further substantial acts to complete under the contract, it may be appropriate to recognise revenue. In either case, if theseller is obliged to perform any significant acts after the transfer of the equitable and/or legal title, revenue is recognised as the acts are performed. An example is a building or other facility on which construction has not been completed. In some cases, real estate may be sold with a degree of continuing involvement by the seller such that the risks and rewardsof ownership have not been transferred. Examples are sale and repurchase agreements which include put and call options, and agreements whereby the seller guarantees occupancy of the property for a specified period, or guarantees a return on the buyer’s investment for a specified period. In such cases, the nature and extent of the seller’s continuing involvement determines how the transaction is accounted for. It may be accounted for as a sale, or as a financing, leasing or some other profit sharing arrangement. If it is ac counted for as a sale, the continuing involvement of the seller may delay the recognition of revenue. A seller also considers the means of payment and evidence of the buyer’s commitment to complete payment. For example, when the aggregate of the payments received, including the buyer’s initial down payment, or continuing payments by the buyer, provide insufficient evidence of the buyer’s commitment to complete payment, revenue is recognised only to the extent cash is received. Rendering of services 10 Installation fees. Installation fees are recognised as revenue by reference to the stage of completion of the installation, unless they are incidental to the sale of a product, in which case they are recognised when the goods are sold. 11 Servicing fees included in the price of the product. When the selling price of a product includes an identifiable amount for subsequent servicing (for example, after sales support and product enhancement on the sale of software), that amount is deferred and recognised as revenue over the period during which the service is performed. The amou nt deferred is that which will cover the expected costs of the services under the agreement, together with a reasonable profit on those services. 1198 © IASCF IAS 18 IE 12 Advertising commissions. Media commissions are recognised when the related advertisement or commercial appears before the public. Production commissions are recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the project. 13 Insurance agency commissions. Insurance agency commissions received or receivable which do not require the agent to render further service are reco gnised as revenue by the agent on the effective commencement or renewal dates of the related policies. However, when it is probable that the agent will be required to render further services during the life of the policy, the commission, or part thereof, is deferred and recognised as revenue over the period during which the policy is in force. 14 Financial service fees. The recognition of revenue for financial service fees depends on the purposes for which the fees are assessed and the ba sis of accounting for any associated financial instrument. The description of fees for financial services may not be indicative of the nature and substance of the services provided. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish between fees that are an integral pa rt of the effective interest rate of a financial instrument, fees that are earned as services are provided, and fees that are earned on the execution of a significant act. (a) Fees that are an integral part of the effective interest rate of a financial instrument. Such fees are generally treated as an adjustment to the effective interest rate. However, when the financial instrument is measured at fair value with the change in fair value recognis ed in profit or loss, the fees are recognised as revenue when the instrument is initially recognised. (i) Origination fees received by the entity relating to the creation or acquisition of a financial asset other than one that under IAS 39 is classified as a financial asset ‘at fair value through profit or loss’. Such fees may include compensation for activities such as evaluating the borrower’s financial condition, evaluating and recording guarantees, collateral and other se curity arrangements, negotiating the terms of the instrument, preparing and processing documents and closing the transaction. These fees are an integral part of generating an involvement with the resulting financial instrument and, together with the related direct costs, are deferred and recognised as an adjustment to the effective interest rate. (ii) Commitment fees received by the entity to originate a loan when the loan commitment is outside the scope of IAS 39. If it is probable that the entity will enter into a specific lending arrangement and the loan commitm ent is not within the scope of IAS 39, the commitment fee received is regarded as compensation for an ongoing involvement with the acquisition of a financial instrument and, together with the rleated direct costs, is deferred and recognised as an adjustment to the effective interest rate. If the commitment expires without the enti ty making the loan, the fee is © IASCF 1199 IAS 18 IE recognised as revenue on expiry. Loan commitments that are within the scope of IAS 39 are accounted for as derivatives and measured at fair value. (iii)Origination fees received on issuing fina ncial liabilities measured at amortised cost. These fees are an integral part of generating an involvement with a financial liability. When a financial liability is not classified as ‘at fair value through profit or loss’, the origination fees received are included, with the related transaction costs incurred, in the initial carrying amount of the financial liability and recognised as an adjustment to the effective interest rate. An entity distinguishes fees and costs that are an integral part of the effective interest rate for the financial liability from origination fees and transaction costs relating to the right to provide services, such as investment management services. (b) Fees earned as services are provided. (i) Fees charged for servicing a loan. Fees charged by an entity for se rvicing a loan are recognised as revenue as the services are provided. (ii) Commitment fees to originate a loan when the loan commitment is outside the scope of IAS 39. If it is unlikely that a specific lending arrangement will be entered into and the loan commitment is outside the scope of IAS 39, the commitment fee is recognised as re venue on a time proportion basis over the commitment period. Loan commitments that are within the scope of IAS 39 are accounted for as derivatives and measured at fair value. (iii)Investment management fees. Fees charged for managing investments are recognised as revenue as the services are provided. Incremental costs that are direct ly attributable to securing an investment management contract are recognised as an asset if they can be identified separately and measured reliably and if it is probablethattheywillberecovere d. As in IAS 39, an incremental cost is one that would not have been incurred if the entity had not secured the investment management contract. The asset represents the entity’s contractual right to benefit from providing investment management services, and is amorti sed as the entity recognises the related revenue. If the entity has a portfolio of investment management contracts, it may assess their recoverability on a portfolio basis. Some financial services contracts involve both the origination of one or more financial instruments and the provision of investment management services. An example is a long-term monthly saving 1200 © IASCF IAS 18 IE contract linked to the management of a pool of equity securities. The provider of the contract distinguishes the transaction costs relating to the origination of the financial instrument from the costs of securing the right to provide investment management services. (c) Fees that are earned on the execution of a significant act. The fees are recognised as revenue when the significant act has been completed, as in the examples below. (i) Commission on the allotment of shares to a client. The commission is recognised as revenue when the shares have been allotted. (ii) Placement fees for arranging a loan between a borrower and an investor. The fee is recognised as revenue when the loan has been arranged. (iii) Loan syndication fees. A syndication fee received by an entity that arranges a loan and retains no part of the loan package for itself (or retains a part at the same effective interest rate for comp arable risk as other participants) is compensation for the service of syndication. Such a fee is recognised as revenue when the syndication has been completed. 15 Admission fees. Revenue from artistic performances, banquets and other special events is recognised when the event takes place. When a subscription to a number of events is sold, the fee is allocated to each event on a basis which reflects the extent to which services are performed at each event. 16 Tuition fees. Revenue is recognised over the period of instruction. 17 Initiation, entrance and membership fees. Revenue recognition depends on the nature of the services provided. If the fee permits only membership, and all other services or produc ts are paid for separately, or if there is a separate annual subscription, the fee is recognised as revenue when no significant uncertainty as to its collectibility exists. If the fee entitles the member to services or pub lications to be provided during the membership period, or to pu rchase goods or services at prices lower than those charged to non-members, it is recognised on a basis that reflects the timing, nature and value of the benefits provided. 18 Franchise fees. Franchise fees may cover the supply of initial and subsequent services, equipment and other tangible assets , and know-how. Accordin gly, franchise fees are © IASCF 1201 IAS 18 IE recognised as revenue on a basis that reflects the purpose for which the fees were charged. The following methods of franchise fee recognition are appropriate: (a) Supplies of equipment and other tangible assets. The amount, based on the fair value of the assets sold, is recognised as revenue when the items are delivered or title passes. (b) Supplies of initial and subsequent services. Fees for the provision of continuing services, whether part of the initial fee or a separate fee, are recognised as revenue as the services are rendered. When the separate fee does not cover the cost of continuing services together with a reasonable profit, part of the initial fee, sufficient to cover the costs of continuing services and to provide a reasonable profit on those services, is deferred and recognised as revenue as the services are rendered. The franchise agreement may provid e for the franchisor to supply equipment, inventories, or other tangible assets, at a price lower than that charged to others or a price that do es not provide a reasonable profit on those sales. In these circumstances, part of the initial fee, sufficient to cover estimated costs in excess of that price and to provide a reasonable profit on those sales, is deferred and recognised over the period the goods are likely to be sold to the franchisee. The balance of an initial fee is recognised as revenue when performance of all the initial services and other obligations required of the fran chisor (such as as sistance with site selection, staff training, financing and advertising) has been substantially accomplished. The initial services and other obli gations under an area franchise agreement may depend on the number of individual outlets established in the area. In this case, the fees attr ibutable to the initial services are recognised as revenue in proportion to the number of outlets for which the initial services have been substantially completed. If the initial fee is collectible over an extended period and there is a significant uncertainty that it will be collected in full, the fee is recognised as cash instalments are received. (c) Continuing franchise fees. Fees charged for the use of continuing rights granted by the agreement, or for other services provided during the period of the agreement, are recognised as revenue as the services are provided or the rights used. (d) Agency transactions. Transactions may take place between the franchisor and the franchisee which, in substance, involve the fr anchisor acting as agent for the franchisee. For example, the franchisor may order supplies and arrange for their delivery to the franchisee at no profit. Such transactions do not give rise to revenue. 1202 © IASCF IAS 18 IE 19 Fees from the development of customised software. Fees from the development of customised software are recognised as revenue by reference to the stage of completion ofthe development, including completion of services provided for post-delivery service support. Interest, royalties and dividends 20 Licence fees and royalties. Fees and royalties paid for the use of an entity’s assets (s uch as trademarks, patents, software, music copyright, record masters and motion picture films) are normallyrecognised in accordancewiththesubstance ofthe agreement. As a practical matter, this may be on a straight-line basis over the life of the agreement, for example, when a licensee has the right to use certain technology for a specified period of time. An assignment of rights for a fixed fee or non-refu ndable guarantee under a non-cancellable contract which permits the licensee to exploit those rights freely and the licensor has no remaining obligations to perform is, in substance, a sale. An example is a licensing agreement for the use of software when the licensor has no obligations subsequent to delivery. Another example is the granting of rights to exhibit a motion picture film in markets where the licensor has no control over the distributor and expects to receive no further revenues from the box office receipts. In such cases, revenue is recognised at the time of sale. In some cases, whether or not a licence feeor royalty will be received is contingent on the occurrence of a future event. In such cases, revenue is recognised only when it is probable that the fee or royalty will be received, which is normally when the event has occurred. © IASCF 1203
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