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IAS 29 International Accounting Standard 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 17 January 2008. IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Ecowas issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in July 1989, and reformatted in 1994. In April 2001 the International Accounting Standards Board resolved that all Standards and Interpretations issued under previous Constitutions continued to be applicable unless and until they were amended or withdrawn. Since then, IAS 29 has been amended by the following IFRSs: 1 2S • I The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates (as revised in December 2003) 1S • I Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in September 2007). The following Interpretation refers to IAS 29: 7C I R F• I Applying the Restatement Approach under IAS 29Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies (issued November 2005). © IASCF 1483 IAS 29 C ONTENTS paragraphs INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 29 FINANCIAL REPORTING IN HYPERINFLATIONARY ECONOMIES SCOPE 1–4 THE RESTATEMENT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 5–37 Historical cost financial statements 11–28 Statement of financial position 11–25 Statement of comprehensive income 26 Gain or loss on net monetary position 27–28 Current cost financial statements 29–31 Statement of financial position 29 Statement of comprehensive income 30 Gain or loss on net monetary position 31 Taxes 32 Statement of cash flows 33 Corresponding figures 34 Consolidated financial statements 35–36 Selection and use of the general price index 37 ECONOMIES CEASING TO BE HYPERINFLATIONARY 38 DISCLOSURES 39–40 EFFECTIVE DATE 41 1484 ©IASCF IAS 29 International Accounting Standard 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies (IAS 29) is set out in paragraphs 1–41. Al l the paragraphs have equal authority but retain the IASC format of the Standard when it was adopted by the IASB. IAS 29 should be read in the context of the Preface to International Financial Reporting Standards and the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements. IAS 8Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errorprovides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies in the absence of explicit guidance . © IASCF 1485 IAS 29 International Accounting Standard 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies Scope 1 This Standard shall be applied to th e financial statements, including the consolidated financial statements, of any entity whose functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy. 2 In a hyperinflationary economy, report ing of operating results and financial position in the local curr ency without restatement is not useful. Money loses purchasing power at such a rate that comparison of amounts from transactions andothereventsthathaveoccurredatdifferenttimes,evenwithinthesame accounting period, is misleading. 3 This Standard does not establish an ab solute rate at which hyperinflation is deemed to arise. It is a matter of judgement when restatement of financial statements in accordance with this Standard becomes necessary. Hyperinflation is indicated by characteristics of the economic environment of a country which include, but are not limited to, the following: (a) the general population prefers to keep its wealth in non-monetary assets or in a relatively stable foreign currency. Amounts of local currency held are immediately invested to maintain purchasing power; (b) the general population regards monetary amounts not in terms of the local currency but in terms of a relatively stable foreign currency. Prices may be quoted in that currency; (c) sales and purchases on cr edit take place at prices that compensate for the expected loss of purchasing power during the credit period, even if the period is short; (d) interest rates, wages and prices are linked to a price index; and (e) the cumulative inflation rate over three years is approaching, or exceeds, 100%. 4 It is preferable that all entities that report in the currency of the same hyperinflationary econom y apply this Standard from the same date. Nevertheless, this Standard applies to the financial statements of any entity from the beginning of the reporting period in which it identifies the existence of hyperinflation in the country in whose currency it reports. The restatement of financial statements r e v o e g n a h c s e c i r 5 P time as the result of various specific or general political, economic and social forces. Specific forces such as changes in supply and demand and technological changes may cause indivi dual prices to increase or decrease significantly and independently of each ot her. In addition, general forces may result in changes in the general level of prices and therefore in the general purchasing power of money. © 1486 IASCF IAS 29 6 In most countries, financial statements ar e prepared on the historical cost basis of accounting without regard either to changes in the general level of prices or to increases in specific prices of assets held, except to the extent that property, plant and equipment and investments may be revalued. Some entities, however, present financial statements that are based on a current cost approach that reflects the effects of changes in the specific prices of assets held. 7 In a hyperinflationary economy, financial statements, whether they are based on a historical cost approach or a current co st approach, are useful only if they are expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the en d of the reporting period. As a result, this Standard applies to the fina ncial statements of entities reporting in the currency of a hyperinfla tionary economy. Pr esentation of the information required by this Standard as a supplement to unrestated financial statements is not permitted. Furthermore, separate presentation of the financial statements before restatement is discouraged. 8 The financial statements of an entity whose functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, whether they are based on a historical cost approach or a current cost approach, shall be stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. The corresponding figures for the previous period required by IAS 1 Presentation of Fi nancial Statements and any information in respect of earlier periods shall also be stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of th e reporting period. For the purpose of presenting comparative amounts in a different presen tation currency, paragraphs 42(b) and 43 of IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates (as revised in 2003) apply. 9 The gain or loss on the net monetary position shall be included in profit or loss and separately disclosed. 10 The restatement of financial statemen ts in accordance with this Standard requires the application of certain procedures as well as judgement. The consistent application of these proc edures and judgements from period to period is more important than the precise accuracy of the resulting amounts included in the restated financial statements. Historical cost financial statements Statement of financial position 11 Statement of financial position amount s not already expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of thereporting period arerestated by applying a general price index. 12 Monetary items are not restated becaus e they are already expressed in terms of the monetary unit current at the end of the reporting period. Monetary items are money held and items to be received or paid in money. 13 Assets and liabilities linked by agreem ent to changes in prices, such as index linked bonds and loans, are adjusted in accordance with the agreement in order to ascertain the amount outstanding at the end of the reporting period. These items are carried at this adjusted amount in the restated statement of financial position. © IASCF 1487 IAS 29 14 All other assets and liabilities are non- monetary. Some non-monetary items are carried at amounts current at the end of the reporting period, such as net realisable value and market value, so they are not restated. All other non-monetary assets and liabilities are restated. 15 Most non-monetary items are carried at cost or cost less depreciation; hence they are expressed at amounts current at their da te of acquisition. The restated cost, or cost less depreciation, of each item is determined by applying to its historical cost and accumulated depreciation the change in a general price index from the date of acquisition to the end of the reporting period. Hence, property, plant and equipment, investments, inventorie s of raw materials and merchandise, goodwill, patents, trademarks and simila r assets are restated from the dates of their purchase. Inventories of partly-f inished and finished goods are restated from the dates on which the costs of purchase and of conversion were incurred. 16 Detailed records of the acquisition da tes of items of property, plant and equipment may not be available or capable of estimation. In these rare circumstances, it may be necessary, in the first period of application of this Standard, to use anindependent professional assessment of the value of the items as the basis for their restatement. 17 A general price index may not be av ailable for the periods for which the restatement of property, plant and equi pment is required by this Standard. In these circumstances, it may be necessary to use an estimate based, for example, on the movements in the exchange rate between the functional currency and a relatively stable foreign currency. 18 Some non-monetary items are carried atamounts current at dates other than that of acquisition or that of the statement offinancial position, for example property, plant and equipment that has been revalued at some earlier date. In these cases, the carrying amounts are restated from the date of the revaluation. 19 The restated amount of a non-monetary item is reduced, in accordance with appropriate Standards, when it exceeds the amount recoverable from the item’s futureuse(includingsaleorotherdisposal). Hence,insuchcases,restated amounts of property, plantand equipment, goodwill, patents and trademarks are reduced to recoverable amou nt, restated amounts of inventories are reduced to net realisable value and restated amounts of current investments are reduced to market value. 20 An investee that is acco unted for under the equity method may report in the currency of a hyperinflationary economy. The statementof financial position and statement of comprehensive income of such an investee are restated in accordance with this Standard in order to calculate the investor’s share of its net assets and results of operations. Where the restated financial statements of the investee are expressed in a foreign currency they are translated at closing rates. 21 The impact of inflation is usually recognised in borrowing costs. It is not appropriate both to restate the capital expenditure financed by borrowing and to capitalise that part of the borrowing costs that compensates for the inflation during the same period. This part of the borrowing costs is recognised as an expense in the period in which the costs are incurred. 1488 ©IASCF IAS 29 22 An entity may acquire assets under an arrangement that permits it to defer payment without incurring an explicit interest charge. Where it is impracticable to impute the amount of interest, such assets are restated from the payment date and not the date of purchase. 23 [Deleted] 24 At the beginning of the first period of application of this Standard, the components of owners’ equi ty, except retained earnings and any revaluation surplus, are restated by applying a general price index from the dates the components were contributed or otherwis e arose. Any revaluation surplus that arose in previous periods is eliminated. Restated retained earnings are derived from all the other amounts in the restated statement of financial position. 25 At the end of the first period and in subsequent periods, all components of owners’ equity are restated by applying a general price index from the beginning of the period or the date of contribution, if later. The movements for the period in owners’ equity are disclosed in accordance with IAS 1. Statement of comprehensive income 26 This Standard requires that all items in the statement of comprehensive income are expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. Therefore all amounts need to be restated by applying the change in the general price index from the dates when the items of income and expenses were initially recorded in the financial statements. Gain or loss on net monetary position 27 In a period of inflation, an entity holding an excess of monetary assets over monetary liabilities loses purchasing po wer and an entity with an excess of monetary liabilities over monetary asse ts gains purchasing power to the extent the assets and liabilities are not linked to a price level. This gain or loss on the net monetary positi on may be derived as the di fference resulting from the restatement of non-monetary assets, owners’ equity and items in the statement of comprehensive income and the adjustment of index linked assets and liabilities. The gain or loss may be estimated by applying the change in a general price index to the weighted average for the period of the difference between monetary assets and monetary liabilities. 28 The gain or loss on the net monetary position is included in net income. The adjustment to those assets and liabilities linked by agreement to changes in prices made in accordance with paragraph 13 is offset against the gain or loss on net monetary position. Other income and expense items, such as interest income and expense, and foreign exchange differences related to invested or borrowed funds, are also associated with the net monetary position. Although such items are separately disclosed, it may be helpful if they are presented together with the gain or loss on net monetary position inthe statement of comprehensive income. © IASCF 1489 IAS 29 Current cost financial statements Statement of financial position 29 Items stated at current cost are not restated because they are already expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. Other items in the statement of financial position are restated in accordance with paragraphs 11 to 25. Statement of comprehensive income 30 The current cost statement of comp rehensive income, before restatement, generally reports costs current at the ti me at which the underlying transactions or events occurred. Cost of sales and depreciation are recorded at current costs at the time of consumption; sales and othe r expenses are recorded at their money amounts when they occurred. Therefore all amounts need to be restated into the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period by applying a general price index. Gain or loss on net monetary position 31 The gain or loss on the net monetary position is accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 27 and 28. Taxes 32 The restatement of financial statements in accordance with this Standard may give rise to differe nces between the carrying amou nt of individual assets and liabilities in the statement of financial position and their tax bases. These differences are accounted for in accordance with IAS 12 Income Taxes. Statement of cash flows 33 This Standard requires that all items in the statement of cash flows are expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. Corresponding figures 34 Corresponding figures for the previo us reporting period, whether they were based on a historical cost approach or a current cost approach, are restated by applying a general price index so that the comparative financial statements are presented in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. Information that is disclosed in respect of earlier periods is also expressed in terms of the measuring unit current atthe end of the reporting period. For the purpose of presenting comparative amounts in a different presentation currency, paragraphs 42(b) and 43 of IAS 21 (as revised in 2003) apply. Consolidated financial statements 35 A parent that reports in the currency of a hyperinflationary economy may have subsidiaries that also report in the currencies of hyperinflationary economies. The financial statements of any such subsidiary need to be restated by applying a general price index of the country in whose currency it reports before they are included in the consolidated financial statements issued by its parent. Where © 1490 IASCF IAS 29 such a subsidiary is a foreign subsidiary , its restated financ ial statements are translated at closing rates. The financial statements of subsidiaries that do not report in the currencies of hyperinf lationary economies are dealt with in accordance with IAS 21. 36 If financial statements with different ends of the reporting periods are consolidated, all items, whether non-monetary or monetary, need to be restated into the measuring unit cu rrent at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Selection and use of the general price index 37 The restatement of financial statemen ts in accordance with this Standard requires the use of a general price in dex that reflects changes in general purchasing power. It is preferable that all entities that report in the currency of the same economy use the same index. Economies ceasing to be hyperinflationary 38 When an economy ceases to be hyperinflationary and an entity discontinues the preparation and presentation of financ ial statements prepared in accordance with this Standard, it shall treat the amounts expressed in the measuring unit current at the end of the previous report ing period as the basis for the carrying amounts in its subsequent financial statements. Disclosures 39 The following disclosures shall be made: (a) the fact that the financial statements and the corresponding figures for previous periods have been restated for the changes in the general purchasing power of the functional currency and, as a result, are stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period; (b) whether the financial statements are based on a historical cost approach or a current cost approach; and (c) the identity and level of the price index at the end of the reporting period and the movement in the index during the current and the previous reporting period. 40 The disclosures required by this Standard are needed to make clear the basis of dealing with the effects of inflation inthe financial statements. They are also intended to provide other information necessary to understand that basis and the resulting amounts. Effective date 41 This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1990. © IASCF 1491
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