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IAS 34 International Accounting Standard 34 Interim Financial Reporting This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 17 January 2008. IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting was issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in February 1998. A limited amendment was made in 2000. In April 2001 the International Accounting Standards Board resolved that all Standards and Interpretations issued under previous Constitutions continued to be applicable unless and until they were amended or withdrawn. Since then, IAS 34 has been amended by the following IFRSs: 1S A• I Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in December 2003) 2S A• I Inventories (as revised in December 2003) 8S A• I Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors (issued December 2003) 6 1S A• I Property, Plant and Equipment (as revised in December 2003) 1 2S A• I The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates (as revised in December 2003) 3S R F• I Business Combinations (issued March 2004) 8S R F• I Operating Segments (issued November 2006) 1S A• I Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in September 2007) 3S R F• I Business Combinations (as revised in January 2008). The following Interpretation refers to IAS 34: 0 1C I R F• I Interim Financial Reporting and Impairment (issued July 2006). © IASCF 1643 IAS 34 C ONTENTS paragraphs INTRODUCTION IN1–IN9 INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 34 INTERIM FINANCIAL REPORTING OBJECTIVE SCOPE 1–3 DEFINITIONS 4 CONTENT OF AN INTERIM FINANCIAL REPORT 5–25 Minimum components of an interim financial report 8 Form and content of interim financial statements 9–14 Selected explanatory notes 15–18 Disclosure of compliance with IFRSs 19 Periods for which interim financial statements are required to be present20–22 Materiality 23–25 DISCLOSURE IN ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 26–27 RECOGNITION AND MEASUREMENT 28–42 Same accounting policies as annual 28–36 Revenues received seasonally, cyclically, or occasionally 37–38 Costs incurred unevenly during the financial year 39 Applying the recognition and measurement principles 40 Use of estimates 41–42 RESTATEMENT OF PREVIOUSLY REPORTED INTERIM PERIODS 43–45 EFFECTIVE DATE 46–48 APPENDICES A Illustration of periods required to be presented B Examples of applying the recognition and measurement principles C Examples of the use of estimates © 1644 IASCF IAS 34 International Accounting Standard 34 Interim Financial Reporting (IAS 34) is set out in paragraphs 1–48. All the paragraphs have equal authority but retain the IASC format of the Standard when it was adopted by the IASB. IAS 34 should be read in the context of its objective, the Preface to International Financial Reporting Standards and the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements . IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies in the absence of explicit guidance. © IASCF 1645 IAS 34 Introduction IN1 This Standard (IAS 34) addresses interim financial reporting, a matter not covered in a prior Standard. IAS 34 is effectiv e for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 January 1999. IN2 An interim financial report is a financial report that contains either a complete or condensed set of financial statements for a period shorter than an entity’s full financial year. IN3 This Standard does not mandate which entities should publish interim financial reports, how frequently, orhow soon after the end of aninterim period. In IASC’s judgement, those matters should be decided by national governments, securities regulators, stock exchanges, and accountanc y bodies. This Standard applies if a company is required or elects to publishan interim financial report in accordance with Standards. IN4 This Standard: (a) defines the minimum content of an interim financial report, including disclosures; and (b) identifies the accounting recognition and measurement principles that should be applied in an interim financial report. IN5 The minimum content of an interim financial report is a condensed statement of financial position, a condensed statement of comprehensive income, a condensed statement of cash flows, a condensed statement of changes in equity, and selected explanatory notes. If an entity presen ts the components of profit or loss in a separate income statement as described in paragraph 81 of IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in 2007), it presents interim condensed information from that separate statement. IN6 On the presumption that anyone who re ads an entity’s interim report will also have access to its most recent annual re port, virtually none of the notes to the annual financial statements are repeat ed or updated in the interim report. Instead, the interim notes include primarily an explanation of the events and changes that are significan t to an understanding of the changes in financial position and performance of the entity since the end of the last annual reporting period. IN7 An entity should apply the same accounting policies in its interim financial report as are applied in its annual fi nancial statements, except for accounting policy changes made after the date of the most recent annual financial statements that are to be reflected in the next an nual financial statements. The frequency of an entity’s reporting—annual, half-yearly, or quarterly—should not affect the measurement of its annual results. To achieve that objective, measurements for interim reporting purposes are made on a year-to-date basis. 1646 ©IASCF IAS 34 IN8 An appendix to this Standard prov ides guidance for applying the basic recognition and measurement principles at interim dates to various types of asset, liability, income, and expense. Income tax expense for an interim period is based on an estimated average annual effective income tax rate, consistent with the annual assessment of taxes. IN9 In deciding how to recognise, classify, or disclose an item for interim financial reporting purposes, materiality is to be assessed in relation to the interim period financial data, not forecast annual data. © IASCF 1647 IAS 34 International Accounting Standard 34 Interim Financial Reporting Objective The objective of this Standard is to perscribe the minimum content of an interim financial report and to prescribe the principles for recognition and measurement in complete or condensed financial statements for an interim period. Timely and reliable interim fina ncial reporting improves the ability of investors, creditors, and others to understand an en tity’s capacity to generate earnings and cash flows and its financial condition and liquidity. Scope 1 This Standard does not mandate which entities should be required to publish interim financial reports, how frequently,or how soon after the end of an interim period. However, governme nts, securities regulators, stock exchanges, and accountancy bodies often require entities whose debt or equity securities are publicly traded to publish interim financia l reports. This Standard applies if an entity is required or elects to publish an interim financial report in accordance with International Fin*ncial Reporting Standards. The International Accounting Standards Committee encourages publicly traded entities to pr ovide interim financial reports that conform to the recognition, measurement, and disclosure principles set out in this Standard. Specifically, publ icly traded entities are encouraged: (a) to provide interim financial reports at least as of the end of the first half of their financial year; and (b) to make their interim financial reports available not later than 60 days after the end of the interim period. 2 Each financial report, annual or interim, is evaluated on its own for conformity to International Financial Reporting Standards. The fact that an entity may not have provided interim financial reports during a particular financial year or may have provided interim financial reports that do not comply with this Standard does not prevent the entity’s annual financial statements from conforming to International Financial Reporting Standards if they otherwise do so. 3 If an entity’s interim financial report is described as complying with International Financial Reporting Standard s,itmustcomplywithallofthe requirements of this Standard. Paragraph 19 requires certain disclosures in that regard. * The International Accounting Standards Committee was succeeded by the International Accounting Standards Board, which began operations in 2001. 1648 ©IASCF IAS 34 Definitions 4 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified: Interim period is a financial reporting period shorter than a full financial year. Interim financial report means a financial report containing either a complete set of financial statements (as described in IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in 2007)) or a set of condensed financial statements (as described in this Standard) for an interim period. Content of an interim financial report 5 IAS 1 (as revised in 2007) defines a complete set of financial statements as including the following components: (a) a statement of financial position as at the end of the period; (b) a statement of comprehensive income for the period; (c) a statement of changes in equity for the period; (d) a statement of cash flows for the period; (e) notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information; and (f) a statement of financial position as at the beginning of the earliest comparative period when an enti ty applies an accounting policy retrospectively or makes a retrospective restatement of items in its financial statements, or when it reclassifies items in its financial statements. 6 In the interest of timeliness and cost considerations and to avoid repetition of information previously reported, an entity may be required to or may elect to provide less information at interim dates as compared with its annual financial statements . This Standard defines the minimum content of an interim financial report as including condensed financia l statements and se lected explanatory notes. The interim financial report is intended to provide an update on the latest complete set of annual financial statements. Accordingly, it focuses on new activities, events, an d circumstances and does not duplicate information previously reported. 7 Nothing in this Standard is intended to prohibit or discou rage an entity from publishing a complete set of financial statements (as described in IAS 1) in its interim financial report, rather than condensed financial statements and selected explanatory notes. Nor does this Standard prohibit or discourage an entity from including in condensed interim financial statements more than the minimum line items or selected explanatory notes as set out in this Standard. The recognition and measur ement guidance in this Standard applies also to complete financial statements for an interim period, and such statements would include all of the disclosures required by this Standard (particularly the selected note disclosures in paragraph 16) as well as those required by other Standards. ©IASCF 1649 IAS 34 Minimum components of an interim financial report 8 An interim financial report shall in clude, at a minimum, the following components: (a) a condensed statement of financial position; (b) a condensed statement of comprehensive income, presented as either; (i) a condensed single statement; or (ii) a condensed separate income statement and a condensed statement of comprehensive income; (c) a condensed statement of changes in equity; (d) a condensed statement of cash flows; and (e) selected explanatory notes. 8A If an entity presents the components of profit or loss in a separate income statement as described in paragraph 81 of IAS 1 (as revised in 2007), it presents interim condensed information from that separate statement. Form and content of interim financial statements 9 If an entity publishes a complete set of financial statements in its interim financial report, the form and content of those statements shall conform to the requirements of IAS 1 for a complete set of financial statements. 10 If an entity publishes a set of conden sed financial statements in its interim financial report, those condensed statementsshall include, at a minimum, each of the headings and subtotals that were included in its most recent annual financial statements and the selected explanatory notes as required by this Standard. Additional line items or notes shall be included if their omission would make the condensed interim financial statements misleading. 11 In the statement that presents the comp onents of profit or loss for an interim period, an entity shall present basic and diluted earnings per share for that period. 11A If an entity presents the components of profit or loss in a separate income statement as described in paragraph 81 of IAS 1 (as revised in 2007), it presents basic and diluted earnings per share in that separate statement. 12 IAS 1 (as revised in 2007) provides guidance on the structure of financial statements. The Implementation Guidance for IAS 1 illustrates ways in which the statement of financial position, statement of comprehensive income and statement of changes in equity may be presented. 13 [deleted] 14 An interim financial report is prepared ona consolidated basis if the entity’s most recent annual financial statements were consolidated statements. The parent’s separate financial statements are no t consistent or comparable with the consolidated statements in the most recentannual financial report. If an entity’s 1650 © IASCF IAS 34 annual financial report included the pa rent’s separate financial statements in addition to consolidated financial statements, this Standard neither requires nor prohibits the inclusion of the parent’s separate statements in the entity’s interim financial report. Selected explanatory notes 15 Auserofanentity’sinterimfinancialreportwillalsohaveaccesstothemost recent annual financial report of that entity. It is unnecessary, therefore, for the notes to an interim financial report to provide relatively insignificant updates to the information that was already reported in the notes in themost recent annual report. At an interim date , an explanation of events and transactions that are significant to an understanding of th e changes in financial position and performance of the entity since the end of the last annual reporting period is more useful. 16 An entity shall include the following information, as a minimum, in the notes to its interim financial statements, if material and if not disclosed elsewhere in the interim financial report. The informatio n shall normally be reported on a financial year-to-date basis. However, the entity shall also disclose any events or transactions that are material to an understanding of the current interim period: (a) a statement that the same accounting policies and methods of computation are followed in the interim financial statements as compared with the most recent annual financial statements or, if those policies or methods have been changed, a description of the nature and effect of the change; (b) explanatory comments about the seasonality or cyclicality of interim operations; (c) the nature and amount of items affe cting assets, liabil ities, equity, net income, or cash flows that are unus ual because of their nature, size, or incidence; (d) the nature and amount of changes in estimates of amounts reported in prior interim periods of the current financial year or changes in estimates of amounts reported in prior financial years, if those changes have a material effect in the current interim period; (e) issuances, repurchases, and repayments of debt and equity securities; (f) dividends paid (aggregate or per share) separately for ordinary shares and other shares; (g) the following segment information (disclosure of segment information is required in an entity’s interim financial report only if IFRS 8 Operating Segments requires that entity to disclose segment information in its annual financial statements): (i) revenues from external customer s, if included in the measure of segment profit or loss reviewed by the chief operating decision maker or otherwise regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker; © IASCF 1651 IAS 34 (ii) intersegment revenues, if included in the measure of segment profit or lossreviewed by the chiefoperating decisionmaker or otherwise regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker; (iii) a measure of segment profit or loss; (iv) total assets for which there has beenamaterialchangefromthe amount disclosed in the last annual financial statements; (v) a description of differences from the last annual financial statements in the basis of segmentation or in the basis of measurement of segment profit or loss; (vi) a reconciliation of the total of the reportable segments’ measures of profit or loss to the entity’s profit or loss before tax expense (tax income) and discontinued operations. However, if an entity allocates to reportable segments items such as tax expense (tax income), the entity may reconcile the total of the segments’ measures of profit or loss to profit or loss after those items. Material reconciling items shall be separately identified and described in that reconciliation; (h) material events subsequent to the end of the interim period that have not been reflected in the financial statements for the interim period; (i) the effect of changes in the composition of the entity during the interim period, including business combinations, obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries and long-term investments, restructurings, and discontinued operations. In the case of business combinations, the entity shall disclose the information required by IFRS 3 Business Combinations; and (j) changes in contingent liabilities or contingent assets since the end of the last annual reporting period. 17 Examples of the kinds of disclosures that are required by paragraph 16 are set out below. Individual Standards and Inte rpretations provide guidance regarding disclosures for many of these items: (a) the write-down of inventories to ne t realisable value and the reversal of such a write-down; (b) recognition of a loss from the impairment of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, or othe r assets, and the reversal of such an impairment loss; (c) the reversal of any provisions for the costs of restructuring; (d) acquisitions and disposals of items of property, plant and equipment; (e) commitments for the purchase of property, plant and equipment; (f) litigation settlements; (g) corrections of prior period errors; (h) [deleted] 1652 © IASCF IAS 34 (i) any loan default or breach of a loan agreement that has not been remedied on or before the end of the reporting period; and (j) related party transactions. 18 Other Standards specify disclosures that should be made in financial statements. In that context, financial statements means complete sets of financial statements of the type normally included in an annual financial report and sometimes included in other reports. Except as re quired by paragraph 16(i), the disclosures required by those other Standards are not required if an entity’s interim financial report includes only condensed financial statements and selected explanatory notes rather than a complete set of financial statements. Disclosure of compliance with IFRSs 19 If an entity’s interim financial report isin compliance with this Standard, that fact shall be disclosed. An interim fina ncial report shall not be described as complying with Standards unless it comp lies with all of the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards. Periods for which interim financial statements are required to be presented 20 Interim reports shall include interim financial statements (condensed or complete) for periods as follows: (a) statement of financial position as of the end of the current interim period and a comparative statement of financial position as of the end of the immediately preceding financial year. (b) statements of comprehensive income for the current interim period and cumulatively for the current financial year to date, with comparative statements of comprehensive income for the comparable interim periods (current and year-to-date) of the immediately preceding financial year. As permitted by IAS 1 (as revised in 2007), an interim report may present for each period either a single statement of comprehensive income, or a statement displaying components of profit or loss (separate income statement) and a second statement be ginning with profit or loss and displaying components of other comprehensive income (statement of comprehensive income). (c) statement of changes in equity cumulatively for the current financial year to date, with a comparative statement for the comparable year-to-date period of the immediately preceding financial year. (d) statement of cash flows cumulatively for the current financial year to date, with a comparative statement for the comparable year-to-date period of the immediately preceding financial year. 21 For an entity whose busine ss is highly seasonal, financial information for the twelve months up to the end of the interim period and comparative information for the prior twelve-month period may be useful. Accordingly, entities whose business is highly seasonal are en couraged to consider reporting such information in addition to the information called for in the preceding paragraph. ©IASCF 1653 IAS 34 22 Appendix A illustrates the periods required to be presented by an entity that reports half-yearly and an entity that reports quarterly. Materiality 23 Indeciding how to recognise, measure, classify, or disclose anitem for interim financial reporting purposes, materiality shall be assessed in relation to the interim period financial data. In making assessments of materiality, it shall be recognised that interim measurements may rely on estimates to a greater extent than measurements of annual financial data. 24 IAS 1 and IAS 8Accounting Policies, Changes inAccounting Estimates and Errorsdefine an item as material if its omission or misstatement could in fluence the economic decisions of users of the financial statements. IAS 1 requires separate disclosure of material items, including (for exam ple) discontinued operations, and IAS 8 requires disclosure of changes in acco unting estimates, er rors, and changes in accounting policies. The two Standards do not contain quantified guidance as to materiality. 25 While judgement is always required in assessing materiality, this Standard bases the recognition and disclosure decision ondata for the interim period by itself for reasons of understandability of the interim figures. Thus, for example, unusual items, changes in accounting policies or estimates, and errors are recognised and disclosed on the basis of materiality in re lation to interim period data to avoid misleading inferences that might result from non-disclosure. The overriding goal is to ensure that an interim financial report includes all information that is relevant to understanding an entity’s financial position and performance during the interim period. Disclosure in annual financial statements 26 If an estimate of an amount reported in an interim period is changed significantly during the final interim pe riod of the financial year but a separate financial report is not published for that final interim period, the nature and amount of that change in estimate shall be disclo sed in a note to the annual financial statements for that financial year. 27 IAS 8 requires disclosure of the nature and (if practicable) the amount of a change in estimate that either has a material effect in the current period or is expected to have a material effect in subsequenpt eriods . Paragraph 16(d) of this Standard requires similar disclosure in an inte rim financial report. Examples include changes in estimatein the final interim period relating to inventory write-downs, restructurings, or impairment losses that were reported in an earlier interim period of the financial year. The disclosure required by the preceding paragraph is consistent with the IAS 8 requirement and is intended to be narrow in scope— relating only to the change in estimate. An entity is not re quired to include additional interim period financial information in its annual financial statements. 1654 ©IASCF IAS 34 Recognition and measurement Same accounting policies as annual 28 An entity shall apply the same accoun ting policies in its interim financial statements as are applied in its annu al financial statements, except for accounting policy changes made after the date of the most recent annual financial statements that are to be reflected in the next annual financial statements. However, the frequency of an entity’s reporting (annual, half-yearly, or quarterly) shall not affect the measurement of its annual results. To achieve that objective, measurements for interim reporting purp oses shall be made on a year-to-date basis. 29 Requiring that an entity apply the sa me accounting policies in its interim financial statements as inits annual statements may seem to suggest that interim period measurements are made as if ea ch interim period stands alone as an independent reporting period. However, by providing that the frequency of an entity’s reporting shall not affect the measurement of its annual results, paragraph 28 acknowledges that an interim period is a part of a larger financial year. Year-to-date measurements may in volve changes in estimates of amounts reported in prior interim periods of thecurrent financial year. But the principles for recognising assets, liabilities, inco me, and expenses for interim periods are the same as in annual financial statements. 30 To illustrate: (a) the principles for recognising and measuring losses from inventory write-downs, restructurings, or impairments in an interim period are the same as those that an entity would follow if it prepared only annual financial statements . However, if such items are recognised and measured in one interim period and the estimate changes in a subsequent interim period of that financial year, the original estimate is changed in the subsequent interim period either by accrual of an additional amount of loss or by reversal of the previously recognised amount; (b) a cost that does not meet the definition of an asset at the end of an interim period is not deferred in the statement of financial position either to await future information as to whether it has met the definition of an asset or to smooth earnings over interim periods within a financial year; and (c) income tax expense is recognised in each interim period based on the best estimate of the weighted average annual income tax rate expected for the full financial year. Amounts accrued for income tax expense in one interim periodmayhavetobeadjustedinasubsequentinterimperiodofthat financial year if the estimate of the annual income tax rate changes. 31 Under the Framework for the Preparation and Pr esentation of Financial Statements (the Framework), recognition is the ‘process of incorporating in the balance sheet or income statement an item that meets the definition of an element and satisfies the criteria for recognition’. The definitions of assets, liabilities, income, and expenses are fundamental to recognition, at the end of both annual and interim financial reporting periods. © IASCF 1655 IAS 34 32 For assets, the same tests of future econ omic benefits apply at interim dates and at the end of an entity’s financial year . Costs that, by their nature, would not qualify as assets at financial year-end would not qualify at interim dates either. Similarly, a liability at the end of an interim reporting period must represent an existing obligation at that date, just as it must at the end of an annual reporting period. 33 An essential characteristic of income (revenue) and expenses is that the related inflows and outflows of assets and liabilities have already taken place. If those inflows or outflows have taken place, the related revenue and expense are recognised; otherwise they are not recognised. The Framework says that ‘expenses are recognised in the income statement when a decrease in future economic benefits related to a decrease in an asset oran increase of a liability has arisen that can be measured reliably… [The]Framework does not allow the recognition of items in the balance sheet which do not meet the definition of assets or liabilities.’ 34 In measuring the assets, liabilities, income, expenses, and cash flows reported in its financial statements, an entity that re ports only annually is able to take into account information that becomes available througho ut the financial year. Its measurements are, in effect, on a year-to-date basis. 35 An entity that reports half-yearly us es information available by mid-year or shortly thereafter in making the measurements in its financial statements for the first six-month period and information available by year-end orshortly thereafter for the twelve-month peri od. The twelve-month measurements will reflect possible changes in estimates of amounts reported for the first six-month period. The amounts reported in the interim financial report for the first six-month period are not retrospectively adjusted . Paragraphs 16(d) and 26 require, however, that the nature and amount of any significant changes in estimates be disclosed. 36 An entity that reports mo re frequently than half-y early measures income and expenses on a year-to-date basis for each interim period using information available when each set of financial statements is being prepared. Amounts of income and expenses reported in the current interim period will reflect any changes in estimates of amounts reportedin prior interim periods of the financial year. The amounts reported in prior interim periods are not retrospectively adjusted. Paragraphs 16(d) and 26 require, however, that the nature and amount of any significant changes in estimates be disclosed. Revenues received seasonally, cyclically, or occasionally 37 Revenues that are received seasonally, cyclically, or occasionally within a financial year shall not be anticipated or deferred as of an interim date if anticipation or deferral would not be appropriate at the end of the entity’s financial year. 38 Examples include dividend revenue, royalties, and government grants. Additionally, some entities consistently earn more revenues in certain interim periods of a financial year than in othe r interim periods, for example, seasonal revenues of retailers. Such revenues are recognised when they occur. 1656 ©IASCF IAS 34 Costs incurred unevenly during the financial year 39 Costs that are incurred unevenly during an entity’s financial year shall be anticipated or deferred for interim report ing purposes if, and only if, it is also appropriate to anticipate or defer that type of cost at the end of the financial year. Applying the recognition and measurement principles 40 Appendix B provides examples of applying the general recognition and measurement principles set out in paragraphs 28–39. Use of estimates 41 The measurement procedures to be followed in an interim financial report shall bedesignedtoensurethattheresultinginformationisreliable andthatall material financial information that is relevant to an understanding of the financial position or performance of the entity is appropriately disclosed. While measurements in both annual and inte rim financial reports are often based on reasonable estimates, the preparation of interim financial reports generally will require a greater use of estimation methods than annual financial reports. 42 Appendix C provides examples of the use of estimates in interim periods. Restatement of previously reported interim periods 43 A change in accounting policy, other thanone for which the transition is specified by a new IFRS, shall be reflected by: (a) restating the financial statements of prior interim periods of the current financial year and the comparable interim periods of any prior financial years that will be restated in the annual financial statements in accordance with IAS 8; or () whenitisimpracticable todeterminethecumulativeeffectatthe beginning of the financial year of applying a new accounting policy to all prior periods, adjusting the financial statements of prior interim periods of the current financial year, and comparable interim periods of prior financial years to apply the new accounting policy prospectively from the earliest date practicable. 44 One objective of the preceding principle is to ensure that a single accounting policy is applied to a particular clas s of transactions throughout an entire financial year. Under IAS 8, a change in accounting policy is reflected by retrospective application, with restatement of prior period financial data as far back as is practicable. However, if the cumulative amount of the adjustment relating to prior financial years is impracticable to determine, then under IAS 8 the new policy is applied prospectivel y from the earliest date practicable. The effect of the principle in paragraph 43 is to require that within the current financial year any change in accounting policy is applied either retrospectively or, if that is not practicable, prospectively, from no late r than the beginning of the financial year. ©IASCF 1657 IAS 34 45 To allow accounting change stobereflectedasofaninterimdatewithinthe financial year would allow two differing accounting policies to be applied to a particular class of transactions within asingle financial year. The result would be interim allocation difficulties, obscued operating results, and complicated analysis and understandability of interim period information. Effective date 46 This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1999. Earlier application is encouraged. 47 IAS 1 (as revised in 2007) amended the terminology used throughout IFRSs. In addition it amended paragraphs 4, 5, 8, 11, 12 and 20, deleted paragraph 13 and added paragraphs 8A and 11A. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. If an entity applies IAS 1 (revised 2007) for an earlier period, the amendments shall be applied for that earlier period. 48 IFRS 3 (as revised in 2008) amended para graph 16(i). An entity shall apply that amendment for annual periods beginning on orafter 1July2009. Ifanentity applies IFRS 3 (revised 2008) for an ea rlier period, the amen dment shall also be applied for that earlier period. 1658 © IASCF IAS 34 IE Appendix A Illustration of periods required to be presented This appendix, which accompanies, but is not part of,IAS 34, provides examples to illustrate application of the principle in paragraph 20. Entity publishes interim financial reports half-yearly A1 The entity’s financial year ends 31 December (calendar year). The entity will present the following financial statemen ts (condensed or complete) in its half-yearly interim financial report as of 30 June 20X1: Statement of financial position: At 30 June 20X1 31 December 20X0 Statement of comprehensive income: 6 months ending 30 June 20X1 30 June 20X0 Statement of cash flows: 6 months ending 30 June 20X1 30 June 20X0 Statement of changes in equity: 6 months ending 30 June 20X1 30 June 20X0 Entity publishes interim financial reports quarterly A2 The entity’s financial year ends 31 December (calendar year). The entity will present the following financial statemen ts (condensed or complete) in its quarterly interim financial report as of 30 June 20X1: Statement of financial position: At 30 June 20X1 31 December 20X0 Statement of comprehensive income: 6 months ending 30 June 20X1 30 June 20X0 3 months ending 30 June 20X1 30 June 20X0 Statement of cash flows: 6 months ending 30 June 20X1 30 June 20X0 Statement of changes in equity: 6 months ending 30 June 20X1 30 June 20X0 © IASCF 1659 IAS 34 IE Appendix B Examples of applying the recognition and measurement principles This appendix, which accompanies, but is not part of, IAS 34, provides examples of applying the general recognition and measurement principles set out in paragraphs 28–39. Employer payroll taxes and insurance contributions B1 If employer payroll taxes or contribu tions to government-s ponsored insurance funds are assessed on an annual basi s, the employer’s related expense is recognised in interim periods using an estimated average annual effective payroll tax or contribution rate, even thougha large portion of the payments may be made early in the financial year. A common example is an employer payroll tax or insurance contribution that is im posed up to a certain maximum level of earnings per employee. For higher in come employees, the maximum income is reached before the end of the financial year, and the employer makes no further payments through the end of the year. Major planned periodic maintenance or overhaul B2 The cost of a planned major periodic maintenance or overhaul or other seasonal expenditure that is expected to occur late in the year is not anticipated for interim reporting purposes unless an even t has caused the entity to have a legal or constructive obligation. The mere intention or necessity to incur expenditure related to the future is not sufficient to give rise to an obligation. Provisions B3 A provision is recognised when an entity has no realistic alternative but to make a transfer of economic benefits as a resu lt of an event that has created a legal or constructive obligation. The amount of the obligation is adjusted upward or downward, with a corresponding loss or gain recognised in profit or loss, if the entity’s best estimate of the amount of the obligation changes. B4 This Standard requires that an entity apply the same criteria for recognising and measuring a provision at an interim date as it would at the end of its financial year. The existence or non-existence of an obligation to transfer benefits is not a function of the length of the reporting period. It is a question of fact. Year-end bonuses B5 The nature of year-end bonuses varies widely. Some are earned simply by continued employment during a time period. Some bonuses are earned based on a monthly, quarterly, or annual measure of operating result. They may be purely discretionary, contractual, or based on years of historical precedent. © 1660 IASCF IAS 34 IE B6 A bonus is anticipated for interim reporting purposes if, and only if, (a) the bonus is a legal obligation or past practice would make the bonus a constructive obligation for which the entity has no realistic alternative but to make the payments, and (b) a reliable estima te of the obligation can be made. IAS 19 Employee Benefits provides guidance. Contingent lease payments B7 Contingent lease payments can be an example of a legal or constructive obligation that are recognis ed as a liability. If a lease provides for contingent payments based on the lessee achievin g a certain level of annual sales, an obligation can arise in the interim peri ods of the financial year before the required annual level of sales has been achieved, if that required level of sales is expected to be achieved and the entity, therefore, has no realistic alternative but to make the future lease payment. Intangible assets B8 An entity will apply the definition and recognition criteria for an intangible asset inthesamewayinaninterimperiodas in an annual period. Costs incurred before the recognition criteria for an intangible asset are metare recognised as an expense. Costs incurred after the specific point in time at which the criteria are met are recognised as part of the cost of an intangible asset. ‘Deferring’ costs as assets in an interim stat ement of financial position in the hope that the recognition criteria will be met later in the financial year is not justified. Pensions B9 Pension cost for an interim period is ulated on a year-to-date basis by using the actuarially determined pens ion cost rate at the end of the prior financial year, adjusted for significant market fluctuations since that time and for significant curtailments, settlements, or other significant one-time events. Vacations, holidays, and other short-term compensated absences B10 Accumulating compensated absences are those that are carried forward and can be used in future periods if the current period’s entitlement is not used in full. IAS 19 Employee Benefits requires that an entity measure the expected cost of and obligation for accumulati ng compensated absences at the amount the entity expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the end of the reporting period. That principle is also a pplied at the end of interim financial reporting periods. Conversely, an entity recognises no expense or liability for non-accumulating compensated absences at the end of an interim reporting period, just as it recognisenone at the end of an annual reporting period. © IASCF 1661 IAS 34 IE Other planned but irregularly occurring costs B11 An entity’s budget may include certain co sts expected to be incurred irregularly during the financial year, such as charitable contributions and employee training costs. Those costs generally are discretionary even though they are planned and tendtorecurfromyeartoyear. Recognisinganobligationattheendofan interim financial reporting period for such costs that have not yet been incurred generally is not consistent with the definition of a liability. Measuring interim income tax expense B12 Interim period income tax expense is accrued using the tax rate that would be applicable to expected total annual earnings, that is, the estimated average annual effective income tax rate applied to thepre-tax income of the interim period. B13 This is consistent with the basic concept set out in paragraph 28 that the same accounting recognition and measurement principles shall be applied in an interim financial report as are applied in annual financial statements. Income taxes are assessed on an annual basis. Interim pe riod income tax expense is calculated by applying to an interim pe riod’s pre-tax income the tax rate that would be applicable to expected total annual earnings, that is, the estimated average annual effective in come tax rate. That estimated average annual rate would reflect a blend of the progressive tax rate structure expected to be applicable to the full year’s earnings including enacted or substantively enacted changes in the income tax rates scheduled totake effect later in the financial year. IAS 12 Income Taxes provides guidance on substa ntively enacted changes in tax rates. The estimated average annual income tax rate would be re-estimated on a year-to-date basis, consistent with paragraph 28 of this Standard. Paragraph 16(d) requires disclosure of a significant change in estimate. B14 To the extent prac ticable, a separate estimated average annual effective income tax rate is determined for each taxing jurisdiction and applied individually to the interim period pre-tax income of each jurisdiction. Similarly, if different income tax rates apply to different categories of income (such as capital gains or income earned in particular industries), to the extent practicable a separate rate is applied to each individual category of interim periodpre-tax income. While that degree of precision is desirable, it may not be achievable in all cases, and a weighted average of rates across jurisdic tions or across cate gories of income is used if it is a reasonable approximation ofthe effect of using more specific rates. B15 To illustrate the application of the fo regoing principle, an entity reporting quarterly expects to earn 10,000 pre-tax each quarter and operates in a jurisdiction with a tax rate of 20 per ce nt on the first 20,000 of annual earnings and 30 per cent on all additional earnings. Actual earnings match expectations. The following table shows the amount of income tax expense that is reported in each quarter: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Annual Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter Tax expense 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 10,000 10,000oftaxisexpectedtobepayabl e for the full year on 40,000 of pre-tax income. 1662 © IASCF IAS 34 IE B16 As another illustration, an entity reports quarterly, earns 15,000 pre-tax profit in the first quarter but expects to incur lossesof 5,000 in each of the three remaining quarters (thus having zero income for the year), and operates in a jurisdiction in which its estimated average annual income tax rate is expected to be 20 per cent. The following table shows the amount of income tax expense that is reported in each quarter: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Annual Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter Tax expense 3,000 (1,000) (1,000) (1,000) 0 Difference in financial reporting year and tax year B17 If the financial reportingyear and the income tax year differ, income tax expense for the interim periods of that financialreporting year is measured using separate weighted average estimated effective tax rates for each of the income tax years applied to the portion of pre-tax income earned in each of those income tax years. B18 To illustrate, an entity’s financial reporting year ends 30 June and it reports quarterly. Its taxable year ends 31 December. For the financial year that begins 1 July, Year 1 and ends 30 June, Year 2, the entity earns 10,000 pre-tax each quarter. The estimated average annual inco me tax rate is 30 per cent in Year 1 and 40 per cent in Year 2. Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter Year ending ending ending ending ending 30 Sept 31 Dec 31 Mar 30 June 30 June Year 1 Year 1 Year 2 Year 2 Year 2 Tax expense 3,000 3,000 4,000 4,000 14,000 Tax credits B19 Some tax jurisdictions give taxpayers credits against the tax payable based on amounts of capital expenditures, ex ports, research and development expenditures, or other bases. Anticipated tax benefits of this type for the full year are generally reflected in computing the estimated annual effective income tax rate, because those credits are granted an d calculated on an annual basis under most tax laws and regulations. On the ot her hand, tax benefits that relate to a one-time event are recognised in computing income tax expense in that interim period, in the same way that special tax rates applicable to particular categories of income are not blended into a single effective annual tax rate. Moreover, in some jurisdictions tax benefits or cred its, including those related to capital expenditures and levels of exports, while reported on the income tax return, are more similar to a government grant and are recognised in the interim period in which they arise. © IASCF 1663 IAS 34 IE Tax loss and tax credit carrybacks and carryforwards B20 The benefits of a tax loss carryback are reflected in the interim period in which the related tax loss occurs. IAS 12 provides that ‘the benefit relating to a tax loss that can be carried back to recover current tax of a previous period shall be recognised as an asset’. A corresponding reduction of tax expense or increase of tax income is also recognised. B21 IAS 12 provides that ‘a deferred taxset shall be recognised for the carryforward of unused tax losses and unused tax credit s to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be ut ilised’. IAS 12 providescriteria for assessing the probability of taxable profit against which the unused tax losses and credits can be utilised. Those criteria are applied at the end of each interim period and, if they are met, the effect of the tax loss carryforward is reflected in the computation of the estimated average annual effective income tax rate. B22 To illustrate, an entity that reports qu arterly has an operating loss carryforward of 10,000 for income tax purposes at the start of the current financial year for which a deferred tax asset has not been recognised. The entity earns 10,000 in the first quarter of the current year and expe cts to earn 10,000 in each of the three remaining quarters. Excluding the carry forward, the estimated average annual income tax rate is expected to be 40 per cent. Tax expense is as follows: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Annual Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter Tax expense 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 12,000 Contractual or anticipated purchase price changes B23 Volume rebates or discounts and other contractual changes in the prices of raw materials, labour, or other purchased goods and services are anticipated in interim periods, by both the payer and the recipient, if it is probable that they have been earned or will take effect. Thus, contractual rebates and discounts are anticipated but discretionary rebates and discounts are not anticipated because the resulting asset or liability would not satisfy the conditions in the Framework that an asset must be a resource controlled by the entity as a result of a past event and that a liability must be a present obligation whose settlement is expected to result in an outflow of resources. Depreciation and amortisation B24 Depreciation and amortisation for an interim period is ba sed only on assets owned during that interim period. It does not take into account asset acquisitions or dispositions planned for later in the financial year. 1664 © IASCF IAS 34 IE Inventories B25 Inventories are measured for interim fi nancial reporting by the same principles as at financial year-end. IAS 2Inventories establishes standards for recognising and measuring inventories. Inventories pose particular problems at the end of any financial reporting period because of theneed to determine inventory quantities, costs, and net realisable values. Nonetheless, the same measurement principles are applied for interim inventories. To save cost and time, entities often use estimates to measure inventories at interim dates to a greater extent than at the end of annual reporting periods. Following are examples of how to apply the net realisable value test at an interim dateand how to treat manufacturing variances at interim dates. Net realisable value of inventories B26 The net realisable value of inventories is determined by reference to selling prices and related costs to complete and dispose at interim dates. An entity will reverse a write-down to net realisable value in a subsequent interim period only if it would be appropriate to do so at the end of the financial year. B27 [Deleted] Interim period manufacturing cost variances B28 Price, efficiency, spending, and volume variances of a manufacturing entity are recognised in income at interim reportin g dates to the same extent that those variances are recognised in income at financial year-end. Deferral of variances that are expected to be absorbed by year -end is not appropriate because it could result in reporting inventory at the interim date at more or less than its portion of the actual cost of manufacture. Foreign currency translation gains and losses B29 Foreign currency translation gains and losses are measured for interim financial reporting by the same principles as at financial year-end. B30 IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates specifies how to translate the financial statements for foreign operations into the presentation currency, including guidelines for using average or closing foreign exchange rates and guidelines for recognising the resulting adjustments in profit or loss or in other comprehensive income. Consistently withIAS 21, the actual average and closing rates for the interim period are used. Entities do not anticipate some future changes in foreign exchange rates in the remainder of the current financial year in translating foreign operations at an interim date. B31 If IAS 21 requires translation adjustments to be recognised as income or expense in the period in which they arise, that principle is applied during each interim period. Entities do not defer some foreign currency translation adjustments at an interim date if the adjustment is expected to reverse before the end of the financial year. ©IASCF 1665 IAS 34 IE Interim financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies B32 Interim financial reports in hyperinfla tionary economies ar e prepared by the same principles as at financial year-end. B33 IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies requires that the financial statements of
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