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Cognitive Psych Ch 3

by: Garrett Kramer

Cognitive Psych Ch 3 PSY250

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY250 > Cognitive Psych Ch 3
Garrett Kramer
GPA 3.88
Cognitive Psychology
Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D.

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Cognitive Psychology
Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D.
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Garrett Kramer on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY250 at University of Miami taught by Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D. in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/31/15
Chapter 1 amp2 Intro to Cognitive Psychology Test of Recognition Memory Nickerson and Adam 1979 Subjects college undergrads Test of recognition memory Shown pictures of pennies with different con gurations Asked to identify the correct penny Findings 85 of college undergraduates selected the wrong penny Cognitive Processing Cognition those processes by which the sensory input is transformed reduced elaborated stored recovered and used Cognitive processing information is transformed Reduction Information is reduced We reduce our lived experiences we do not remember every detail Elaboration Information is added elaborated Memory is constructive we make inferences we ll in the blanks Tendency to ll in the blanks Remember incorrectly Ex When telling a story Pattern recognition Humans have basic tendencies to organize what we see We see patterns rather than random arrangements MindBody Problem The mindbody problem how physical operations of a concrete substance are able to evoke mental experiences Early philosophers Socrates Plato Aristotle pondered where knowledge comes from and how it is represented in the mind Aristotle studied perception and memory empirically First one to believe to use scienti c way to study It all boils down to neurons ring in your brain Creates an experience a thought a memory Trepanning thousands of years ago 6000 BC 1500 AD Doctors drilled holes into people s skulls to let evil spirits out or good ones in Ancient graveyard in France and found that 20 of skulls had holes in them Treatment for mental disorders epilepsy and migraines Many did not survive Codnitive Neuroscience Phrenology late 1700 s Focused on measurements of the human skull ldea that certain brain areas have localized speci c functions or modules Discipline of psychology Emerged in the late 1800 s 1900 s dominated by behaviorism Cognitive revolution 1960 s Cognitive neuroscience The study of the relationship between brain structures neurological activity and cognitive function The study of the relationship between brain structures neurological activity and cognitive function Understanding structure and function of the brain to understand cognition examines which brain structures are active when people perform a variety of cognitive tasks Behaviorism Behaviorism Dominated rst half of the 20th century Learning theories Classical conditioning Watson Pavlov s dog responses are learned Operant conditioning BF Skinner behavior is clari ed by reinforcement and punishment Discounted eugenics and cognition lnsisted that psychology be examined empirically through observation Belief that emotion and personalities are shaped by the environment Discounted eugenics the belief and practice of controlling genetic inheritance Discounted cognition calimed mental states cannot be measured Emotions and personalities are shaped by the environment Before Elaasi al on iti ing F l ames ell we 53mm stg nial mug ames in j f il gl 39i llE39Ig l j Minerm 125 Fond Eal rati u D meal a m39aJ Hlm39d Modern Cognitive Psychology Emergence of cognitive psychology 1956 numerous books and articles published on attention memory language and problem solving 1960 s cognitive approach develops into quotcognitive revolutionquot Shift from behavioral approach to cognitive Attempt to explain complex human behavior beyond what is observable eg thoughts strategies Focus on humans versus animals New developments in linguistics and memory research Language Skinner versus Chomsky New research in memory distortion and interference Older Methods of Brain Investigation Brain lesions studied types of disruption Based on location and extent of the lesion Could determine information about brain centers Phineas Gage 1848 accident indicated that brain injury could alter personality Pierre Paul Broca 1861 during autopsy identi ed Broca s area as crucial for producing speech Direct stimulation During brain surgery Small electrical charges to the exposed brain to observe behavior changes Electroencephalogram EEG Records the patterns of brain waves Electrodes are attached to the scalp Study eventrelated potentials changes in electrical activity of the brain when a particular stimulus is presented Good when information not good where information Imaging Technology CAT Scan Computerized Axial Tomography CAT uses xrays PET PositronEmission Topography PET Uses radioactive tracers to study brain activity Measures blood ow in different parts of the brain MRIZfMRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Gives clear pictures of the structure of the brain and other body parts Noninvasive uses radio waves and magnetic eld Functional MRI fMRI Looks at brain function Image shows regions of the brain with heightened neural activity Different colors re ect high or low levels of blood ow and oxygen Used for brain mapping Four Lobes of the Neocortex Temporal Hearing and language Memory includes hippocampus Frontal Strategic thinking Reasoning Social cognition Voluntary movement Parietal Complex visualtouch perception Body sense pain R Arithmetic LR sense L Occipital visual pattern recognition Parliatal la laa Fraatal llaa Review Basic Neurology Neurons Cells in the brain and the entire nervous system Carry electrochemical information Billions of them in the brain maybe 100 billion Receive and transmit a neural impulse Neurotransmitter Chemical substance that transmits information from one neuron to another Released into the synapse between two neurons Activates or inhibits the next neuron Synapses The region or space where the axon terminal of one neuron comes together with the dendrites of another neuron One neuron can synapse with hundreds of thousands of other neurons Myelin Fattyprotein substance coating on axons Speeds up the electrochemical transmission Myelination formed during development Dendrites 3973 Humeus f ail nucleus tn pagan MyraIi ra Lower Brain Structures Corpus caosum the primary bridge that messages cross over to the left and right hemispheres Hippocampus stores new information for transfer into longterm memory also implicated in memory retrieval and working memory Cerebellum coordinates ne motor and balance also coordinates thinking Thalamus gateway to the cortex almost all sensory messages come through the thalamus Hypothalmus involved in functions including homeostasis emotion thirst and hunger Also controls the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary Corpus callloaum Thalamua Hypothalamw Pituitary quotx39 I DUEJ quot A mf al Medulla 3 Principles of Functioning Contralateral crosslateral control of one side of the body is localized in the oppositeside hemisphere Lateralization Hemispheric specialization Left hemisphere Specialized for language for most people Logical analytical Right hemisphere Softer aspects of life creativity music processing faces Holistic perception synthesizes elements


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