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Chapter 3

by: Garrett Kramer

Chapter 3 PSY250

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PSY250 > Chapter 3
Garrett Kramer
GPA 3.88
Cognitive Psychology
Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D.

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Cognitive Psychology
Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D.
Class Notes
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Garrett Kramer on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY250 at a university taught by Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D. in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 244 views.

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Date Created: 01/31/15
Chapter 3 Attention Attention Attention the act of thinking about listening to or watching the faculty of directing the mind allocation of processing resources Selective attention selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things We determine what to pay attention to and when Selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things Attentional spotlight Spotlight as metaphor for human attention Cognitive ability to focus and sharpen our attention Attention can be moved and refocused Attentional shift takes time Consciousness or mindfulness A complex form of attention The intentional focus of one39s attention on the emotions thoughts and sensations occurring in the present moment taking possession of the mindquot Types of Attention Controlled attention Basic mental process that occurs within cognition mpies control requires effort focus concentration Limited resource interferes with other cognitive abilities performance suffers with attention to multiple stimuli Affected by arousal and alertness boredom or fatigue reduces controlled attention Controlled by frontal lobes Serial processing Input attention Low level attention occurs rapidly and automatically Requires little or no effort or concentration A state of alertness and arousal Controlled by lower brain stem Parallel processing Visual Search Visual search Search for the blue X in each Notice your response time to detect the target item The blue X pops out at you regardless of the number of distracter items input attention IsolatedCombined Feature Effect lsolated feature First time using input attention Blue X was an isolated featurequot The only blue targets were also X s Number of distracting items makes no difference Also called preattentive processing Combined feature Second time using selective attention Blue X was combined featurequot Some blue targets were O s some were X s More likely you need to use serial search Response time is a function of the number of distracters Demonstrates controlled attention Also called focused attentional processing Feature Absent Effect Dif cult to search for something that is not there Easier to handle positive information than negative Another example on the following slide Two sets of target information First on the left nd circle with line Then on the right nd circle without line Feature Present versus Feature Absent A feature that is present captures attention automatically bottomup processing A feature that is absent search time increases with number of irrelevant items Uses focused attention Uses bottom up and top down processing Uses serial search Feature present versus feature absent More difficult to search for something that is not there Easier to handle positive information than negative Bottom up versus top down Dichotic Listening Procedure Selective Attention Cherry 1953 Dichotic listening task a test of selective divided attention Different messages arrive simultaneously at each ear The listener is asked to focus on one message and recall what they heard Findings In general listeners attend to one message Are unaware of the content of the unattended message Do not notice if unattended message switches from one language to another They do notice if the speaker switches from male to female Most people show a rightear advantage the left temporal lobe contains regions that are critical to receptive speech Evidence of an attentional lter Dichotic listening task Subjects good at attending to one message Do not notice if unattended message switches from one language to another They do notice if the speaker witches form male to female People can attend to both messages when Both messages presented slowly The task is not challenging The meaning of the unattented message is espccialy salient or relevant Most people show a right ear advantage the left temporal lobe contains regions that are critical or receptive speech Cocktail Pa rty Effect Cocktail Party Phenomenon In a crowded room you can selectively attend to one conversation ignoring all other conversations around you Attention may be shifted for example if you hear your name mentioned in an ignored message Conway et al 2001 Subjects were rated high and low working memory Presented with a dichotic listening task Participants name was presented to the ignored ear Findings Students with a high workingmemory capacity noticed their name 20 of the time Students with a low workingmemory capacity noticed their name 65 of the time People with a low capacity have dif culty blocking they are more easily distracted Divided Attention Divided attention Attending to two or more sources of information at the same time We think we can divide attention but the research does not support this Multitasking Trying to accomplish two or more tasks at the same time We think we can divide attention but the research does not support this Switching between multiple tasks Limited ability to accomplish two tasks simultaneously Resea rch exa mpes College students walk more slowly while talking on their cell phones College students read more slowly if responding to texts or instant messaging they also earn lower grades on that material Drivers reaction time is 20 slower if talking on a cell phone Limited Resource Divided Attention Driving and Distraction Driving performance and cell phone use Strayer ampJohnson 2001 Subjects Using simulated driving experiences Compared with and without cell phone use Findings Reaction time slows when engaged in interesting conversations Some subjects missed traf c signals altogether Conversation with a passenger does not appear to be a major distraction Strayer amp Drews 2006 Compared handheld and hands free Have equal effect 17 decrease in performance Texting and Driving Texting and driving not only takes your focus and attention but also your vision 25 of auto collisions 16 millionyear due to texting and driving 11 teen deaths EVERY DAY 5 seconds minimal amount of time attention is taken away from the road 23 times more likely to crash while texting 28 times while dialing 13 times while talking or listening 14 times while reaching for device 6 times more dangerous than driving while intoxicated ATampT VIDEO It Can Wait httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvdhtVy25jPs Vigilance Vigiliance ability to maintain concentrated attention over prolonged periods of time Attention is a limited resource Mackworth 1948 Subjects British navy recruits The Mackworth Clock clocklike radarExperimental simulation of long term monitoring by radar operations during WWII Subjects to detect when the dot skips a spot Findings Errors increase with time over the rst hour After 30 minutes performance declines 15 Error rate almost doubled in the next 30 minutes Error rate levels off after rst hour Implications Attention is effected by boredom fatigue arousal alertness Similar ndings with auditory targets Attentional Blink Attentional blink It takes time to shift attention Attentional blinkThe moment when you are shifting focus and unable to attend fully to a new target There is a cost of selective attention which is functional blindness to other events Raymond Shapiro and Arnell 1992 Subjects college students Presented with letters in rapid order Press a button when a target is seen M or X Findings When the target is found it is dif cult to nd the second if it occurs soon after the rst The typical blink is 12 second 115 ITlSEC me Look only for Target 90 80 7O 60 SO Look for both target Performdnce in percent 1 2 3 ii 5 o 339 Time between targets in hundreds of milliseconds ADHD and Inhibition Cherry and Kruger 1983 Subjects children age 7 9 with and without ADHD Performed dichotic listening task Wearing headphones different messages are played into each ear Subjects asked to attend to one message and ignore the other In the unattended ear gtgt Nothing gtgt Static Backward speech Forward speech Then asked to point to a picture that was presented in attended message Inhibition De cit Cherry and Kruger 1983 ndings Nothing condition When nothing was playing in the unattended ear with and without ADHD performed equally well When there is nothing to inhibit performance was the same All other conditions static forward speech and backward speech ADHD performed more poorly Largest difference in performance for forward speech Indicates ADHD is a failure to inhibit not a failure to attend Working Memory Conway et al 2001 Subjects were rated high and low working memory Presented with a dichotic listening task Participants name was presented to the ignored ear Findings High workingmemory capacity noticed their name 20 of the time Low workingmemory capacity noticed their name 65 of the time People with a low capacity have dif culty blocking they are more easily distracted The Stroop Task Say the name of the color as quickly as possible GREEN BLUE RED YELLOW BLACK ORANGE GREEN BLUE BLACK RED BLACK YELLOW ORANGE BLUE GREEN BLUE RED GREEN ORANGE YELLOW Task created byJames Stroop 1935 Measures response time for reading congruent and incongruent ink color for color words Test of executive attention Con ict between automatic input and controlled attention Reading the word is automatic To resolve con ict you needed to inhibit automatic response and control your attention to the ink color Practice improves performance Subsequent research Emotional Stroop test Name the ink color of emotionally charged words words that relate to fear or depression are named more slowly for people with anxiety disorders or depression Also used to test for addiction and eating disorders Early Filter Model of Attention Broadbent s theory 1954 attention is a lter Sensory system has a buffer Information comes in through our senses we either attend to it or not If we attend to it it is part of our consciousness we can do something with it Early models applied lter in the sensory storequot prevents information from entering the processing system Focus on restricted ow also called bottleneck theories Underestimates exibility of human attention Broadbent s Fitter Mode Bottleneck f Unattended message is templeter blocked at this stage Later Models of Attention Early lter model problems Underestimates the exibility of human attention Some information gets through ie cocktail party effect Treisman s Attenuation Theory of Attention 1964 Also an early lter theory a leaky filter Unattended information is weakened rather than ignored Signal strength is modulated based on the context if threshold is reached it will be attended TfeiSmants Attenuation Mode Whether or not attenuated inputs get processed at this stage and to whet degree is determined hytheir threshold Leaky Filter Model Moray 1969 Subjects Presented with a set of words accompanied by a mild electric shock Then performed a dichotic listening task Occasionally a word in the unattended ear was one associated with shock Measured conscious awareness and implicit awareness Implicit test galvanic skin response GSR measures change in conductance of the skin Findings GSR increased with associated words Words were detected unconsciously not consciously Similar ndings for words that were synonyms Evidence that our attention can be recruited on the basis of meaning Capacity Theory of Attention Attention is a resource Daniel Kahneman Capacity Theory 1973 Proposed a resource model of attention Ability to focus attention varies with the number and complexity of the tasks Varies with how mentally energized we are The resource cost the amount of resources needed to perform a task Kahneman s test Subjects Performed tasks rewarded by either 2 cents per trial or 10 cents per trial Measured pupil dilation a rough measure of arousal re ecting effort Findings Task dif culty predicted the effort not the monetary reward We adjust the amount of effort by the dif culty of the task We cannot try harder pay more attention lnattentional Blindness lnattentional blindness An inability to perceive something that is within one39s direct perceptual eld because one is attending to something else Perceptual blindnessquot or sighted blindnessquot describes the relationship between attention and perception Psychological lack of attention Focused attention can cause us to miss stimuli and events Simons and Chabris 1999 Subjects college students Asked to count the number of passes between basketball players wearing white Findings less than half report seeing the intruder Change Blindness Change blindness perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it O Regan et al 1997 Subjects Asked to identify difference between two pictures Pictures ashed with a gap of 80 msec Findings Most subjects take many ashes to identify Takes longer if changes are not central Repetition Blindness Repetition blindness inability to perceive or attend to repeated stimuli MacKay amp Miller 1994 Subjects presented with letters in rapid order Findings Subjects often fail to report consecutive letters Also occurs when And when Indicates it is attention and not visual perception Repetition blindness occurs when your frontal cortex has to process an array of similar visual images all streaming in from the visual cortex Pradeep2010 Attention Networks Orienting attention network Responsible for visual search Controlled by exogenous and endogenous cues Parietal lobe Executive attention network Focuses manages and directs attention Frontal lobe Involuntary attention Attention capture orienting re ex triggered by signi cant or novel stimuli Controlled by exogenous cues Lower brain stem Attention Capture Habtua on A decrease in attention to repeated exposures Dishabituation release from habituation an increased attention for novel stimuli attention capture Attention capture and emotion Attention and emotion share neural pathways Socialemotional cues capture our attention Attentional blink and emotion Second target is better detected if it is emotional rather than neutral Anderson 2005 A negative rst target has a longer attentional blink than a neutral one Most 2005 Simultanagnosia Simultanagnosia People who have dif culty noticing objects to the left or right of where they are attending Dif culty identifying more than one object at a time Also known as Balint s syndrome Usually occurs as a result of damage to parietal lobe Unilateral Spatial Neglect Unilateral spatial neglect also called hemineglect Neurological problem affecting the attention system Occurs from damage to the orienting attention area of the parietal lobe most commonly the right side Have trouble noticing stimulus on the opposite side Perceived but not attended awareness is part of the attention system During recovery Subjects asked to look straight ahead and report when two objects brought from both sides appear in their periphery Findings Show a similar pattern to repetition blindness Indicates it is the attention system not the visual system Blindsight Blindsight A condition where people can perform a cognitive task without conscious awareness Results from damage to the visual cortex Believe they are blind in parts or all of visual eld Information from the retina travels to other areas in addition to the visual cortex Executive Attention Executive attention Requires effort to initiate and sustain Prefrontal cortex Inhibits processing of distracting stimuli Enhances processing of relevant stimuli Projections from prefrontal cortex To sensory cortices to enhance processing To motor and premotor cortex to inhibit inappropriate responses Prefrontal cortex orchestrates behavior and attention in a thoughtful manner BottomUp versus TopDown Attention Top down versus bottom up processing Strategies of information processing styles of thinking Two different aspects of how the mind comes to attend to items in the environment Bottom up exogenous Stimulusdriven attention Attentional processing which is driven by the properties of the objects themselves We attend to them whether we want to or not Function of the parietal lobe and brain stem Involuntary attention is bottom up Top down endogenous Goaldriven Under the control of the person who is attending Function of the frontal lobe Executive attention is top down Attention De cit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD ADHD Estimated of schoolage children Symptoms persist into adulthood for Involves executive cognitive functioning Inability to organize to pay attention to and remember details and instructions Inability to screen out irrelevant information Inability to carry out a plan to completion and to avoid distractions DSM V Inattentive type Hyperactiveimpulsive type Combined type Inattentive Type Dif culty initiating and sustaining attention Dif culty with task completion Dif culty following through with directions Task avoidancetask aversion fails to nish schoolwork or chores Makes careless mistakes loses things Dif culty with time management organization and prioritization Distractability Sensory distractibility inability to attend to important relevant stimuli selective attention requires sensory lter Motor distractibility inability to inhibit motor responses Dif culty shifting attention Working memory Dif culty recalling complex instructions Forgetting information that has just been read Dif culty transferring information HyperactiveImpulsive Type Hyperactivity Excessive motor activity Overtalkativeness Poor motor control Aggressiveness or clumsiness Impulsivity Dif culty inhibiting responses impatient blurts out answers interrupts or intrudes on conversations Seek external stimulation risk takingnoveltyseeking behavior without consideration of potential consequences Often described as accident prone ADHD Biology Genetics Heritability is of biological parents of adoptive parents Brain differences Frontal lobes ADHD associated with blood ow in the frontal lobes Basil ganglia Basil ganglia Interconnected with several other areas of the brain motor cortex thalamus and brain stem Has an inhibitory effect helps determine action selection Produces dopamine ADHD basil ganglia compared to matched controls Dopamine ADHD levels of dopamine associated with inattention impulsivity and hyperactivity ADHD Medication Medication Stimulants Methylphenidate Ritalin an amphetamine Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine Adderall Stimulants work for about of ADHD cases Effectiveness Increases blood ow to frontal cortex Decreases volume of blood in the motor cortex Maintains the availability of dopamine Side effects insomnia stomachache headache loss of appetite rebound effects Increased moodiness and restlessness when medication wears off Controversies Nonstimulant meds Strattera selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythms Daily cycles that regulate bodily functions such as body temperature hormones breathing and digestion A 24hour cycle Determined by brain s exposure to light Suprachiasmatic nuclei Located in the hypothalamus along the optic nerve Known as the quotbiological clockquot controls the body s 24 hour cycle Regulates our sleepwake cycles physiological psychological and cognitive cycle Effects our attention and ability to focus and learn Five Stages of Sleep Alpha and beta waves small and fast waves still awake NonREM sleep Stage 1 Theta waves Light sleep Lasts 5 10 minutes Stage 2 Sleep spindles bursts of rapid rhythmic brain waves Lasts 20 minutes Stage 3 Delta waves Transition between light and deep sleep Stage 4 Slow delta waves deep sleep Lasts 30 minutes REM sleep stage 5 most vivid dreaming REM Sleep Progression of REM sleep Sleep does not progress through stages in sequence Begins in stage 1 progresses into 2 3 and 4 After stage 4 stage 3 and 2 are repeated before REM REM sleep cycle occurs about every 90 minutes After REM body usually returns to stage 2 REM occurs four to ve times per night REM periods become longer toward the morning REM sleep Rapid eye movement Mind is active Increased respiration brain activity and sexual arousal Vivid dreaming Arm and legs are paralyzed to keep us from acting out our dreams Beta REM leiale H H i i ll lLl l l w l U Them HLf 11L Delta Hours of sleep J I I I 1 I I I 2 I I I i I I I q I I I S I I I I I I How Much Sleep How much sleep do we need Newborns 12 to 18 hours Infants toddlers preschoolers 12 to 15 hours School age children 10 to 11 hours Teens 85 to 925 hours Adults hours Elderly Typically sleep less than 7 hours Sleep need is not reduced rather ability to sleep is reduced due health stress medication What interferes with sleep Stress overscheduling studying partying Caffeine alcohol drugs Health problemsillness Overstimulation technology Sleep disturbances nightmares sleep walking sleep paralysis How Much Sleep How much sleep do we need Newborns 12 to 18 hours Infants toddlers preschoolers 12 to 15 hours School age children 10 to 11 hours Teens 85 to 925 hours Adults 79hours Elderly Typically sleep less than 7 hours Sleep need is not reduced rather ability to sleep is reduced due health stress medication What interferes with sleep Stress overscheduling studying partying Caffeine alcohol drugs Health problemsillness Overstimulation technology Sleep disturbances nightmares sleep walking sleep paralysis Adolescent Sleep Cycle Adolescents sleep cycle Puberty shifts the cycle about an hour later Melatonin sleep inducing hormone Gets secreted at different times Adolescents are seepier in the morning stay up later Implications Adolescents are chronically sleep deprived Everyone else has a different sleep cycle and expectations Chronic sleep deprivation interferes with cognition learning attention mood appetite health immune system acne Some schools have shifted school to start and end an hour or two later CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS f The PeyohologicallCognitive Cycle 7 51311 Degree oli Focus Zquot g I I liriili 1 z I l l l 6AM 8AM lOAM 12N 2PM 4PM 5PM 8PM lDPlJI Time of Day Pre Ipostadolescent u a Adolescent Chronic Sleep Loss Associated cognitive problems Problems in memory Reduced reaction time Lack of comprehension lnattention Reduced creativity Associated medicalhealth problems Lowered immune system Increased appetite Increased risk of obesity Increased risk of diabetes Increased reaction to stress Associated psychologicalmental health problems Unregulated emotional states Irritability Depression Increased anxiety NASA study Dinges 2007 Subjects on 18 different sleep cycles for several days in a laboratory setting Studied the effects of naps on memory alertness response time and other cognitive skills Conclusions Naps are restorative and increase energy Naps strengthen ability to focus attention and make critical decisions Power naps Short sleep which terminates before the occurrence of deep sleep or slowwave sleep 30 minutes most effective Even 10 minute naps are restorative Longernaps Better for restoring cognitive functioning Needed to recover from sleep deprivation Do not nap if you have trouble falling asleep at night Going beyond stages 1 and 2 but failing to complete a full sleep cycle May make it dif cult to wake up May make you groggy more tired than before What are Dreams Dreams might be essential for making sense of the world A way to work through the past Project ourselves into the future appear to be qualitatively different dreams are more logical shorter duration and associated with positive mood and selfregard last longer are more outrageous and outlandish and more likely to be associated with negative mood Purpose of Dreams sleep enhances learning and memory dreams appear to be processing events of the day and consolidating memory dreams use images from the past and also move us into the future dreams are a simulation allow us to face challenges imagine possibilities There are no consequences for playing out a future in sleep and having it not work out Nightmares might be useful force us to go through threatening events we are practicing how to survive and navigate threatening events Meaning in dreams If you analyze a person s dreams over a period of time you get an understanding of the type of dreams a person has reoccurring themes you get an understanding of the emotional and social concerns of that person We work out preoccupations from our waking life Chapter 1 amp2 Intro to Cognitive Psychology Test of Recognition Memory Nickerson and Adam 1979 Subjects college undergrads Test of recognition memory Shown pictures of pennies with different con gurations Asked to identify the correct penny Findings 85 of college undergraduates selected the wrong penny Cognitive Processing Cognition those processes by which the sensory input is transformed reduced elaborated stored recovered and used Cognitive processing information is transformed Reduction Information is reduced We reduce our lived experiences we do not remember every detail Elaboration Information is added elaborated Memory is constructive we make inferences we ll in the blanks Tendency to ll in the blanks Remember incorrectly Ex When telling a story Pattern recognition Humans have basic tendencies to organize what we see We see patterns rather than random arrangements MindBody Problem The mindbody problem how physical operations of a concrete substance are able to evoke mental experiences Early philosophers Socrates Plato Aristotle pondered where knowledge comes from and how it is represented in the mind Aristotle studied perception and memory empirically First one to believe to use scienti c way to study It all boils down to neurons ring in your brain Creates an experience a thought a memory Trepanning thousands of years ago 6000 BC 1500 AD Doctors drilled holes into people s skulls to let evil spirits out or good ones in Ancient graveyard in France and found that 20 of skulls had holes in them Treatment for mental disorders epilepsy and migraines Many did not survive Codnitive Neuroscience Phrenology late 1700 s Focused on measurements of the human skull ldea that certain brain areas have localized speci c functions or modules Discipline of psychology Emerged in the late 1800 s 1900 s dominated by behaviorism Cognitive revolution 1960 s Cognitive neuroscience The study of the relationship between brain structures neurological activity and cognitive function The study of the relationship between brain structures neurological activity and cognitive function Understanding structure and function of the brain to understand cognition examines which brain structures are active when people perform a variety of cognitive tasks Behaviorism Behaviorism Dominated rst half of the 20th century Learning theories Classical conditioning Watson Pavlov s dog responses are learned Operant conditioning BF Skinner behavior is clari ed by reinforcement and punishment Discounted eugenics and cognition lnsisted that psychology be examined empirically through observation Belief that emotion and personalities are shaped by the environment Discounted eugenics the belief and practice of controlling genetic inheritance Discounted cognition calimed mental states cannot be measured Emotions and personalities are shaped by the environment Before Elaasi al on iti ing F l ames ell we 53mm stg nial mug ames in j f il gl 39i llE39Ig l j Minerm 125 Fond Eal rati u D meal a m39aJ Hlm39d Modern Cognitive Psychology Emergence of cognitive psychology 1956 numerous books and articles published on attention memory language and problem solving 1960 s cognitive approach develops into quotcognitive revolutionquot Shift from behavioral approach to cognitive Attempt to explain complex human behavior beyond what is observable eg thoughts strategies Focus on humans versus animals New developments in linguistics and memory research Language Skinner versus Chomsky New research in memory distortion and interference Older Methods of Brain Investigation Brain lesions studied types of disruption Based on location and extent of the lesion Could determine information about brain centers Phineas Gage 1848 accident indicated that brain injury could alter personality Pierre Paul Broca 1861 during autopsy identi ed Broca s area as crucial for producing speech Direct stimulation During brain surgery Small electrical charges to the exposed brain to observe behavior changes Electroencephalogram EEG Records the patterns of brain waves Electrodes are attached to the scalp Study eventrelated potentials changes in electrical activity of the brain when a particular stimulus is presented Good when information not good where information Imaging Technology CAT Scan Computerized Axial Tomography CAT uses xrays PET PositronEmission Topography PET Uses radioactive tracers to study brain activity Measures blood ow in different parts of the brain MRIZfMRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Gives clear pictures of the structure of the brain and other body parts Noninvasive uses radio waves and magnetic eld Functional MRI fMRI Looks at brain function Image shows regions of the brain with heightened neural activity Different colors re ect high or low levels of blood ow and oxygen Used for brain mapping Four Lobes of the Neocortex Temporal Hearing and language Memory includes hippocampus Frontal Strategic thinking Reasoning Social cognition Voluntary movement Parietal Complex visualtouch perception Body sense pain R Arithmetic LR sense L Occipital visual pattern recognition Parliatal la laa Fraatal llaa Review Basic Neurology Neurons Cells in the brain and the entire nervous system Carry electrochemical information Billions of them in the brain maybe 100 billion Receive and transmit a neural impulse Neurotransmitter Chemical substance that transmits information from one neuron to another Released into the synapse between two neurons Activates or inhibits the next neuron Synapses The region or space where the axon terminal of one neuron comes together with the dendrites of another neuron One neuron can synapse with hundreds of thousands of other neurons Myelin Fattyprotein substance coating on axons Speeds up the electrochemical transmission Myelination formed during development Dendrites 3973 Humeus f ail nucleus tn pagan MyraIi ra Lower Brain Structures Corpus caosum the primary bridge that messages cross over to the left and right hemispheres Hippocampus stores new information for transfer into longterm memory also implicated in memory retrieval and working memory Cerebellum coordinates ne motor and balance also coordinates thinking Thalamus gateway to the cortex almost all sensory messages come through the thalamus Hypothalmus involved in functions including homeostasis emotion thirst and hunger Also controls the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary Corpus callloaum Thalamua Hypothalamw Pituitary quotx39 I DUEJ quot A mf al Medulla 3 Principles of Functioning Contralateral crosslateral control of one side of the body is localized in the oppositeside hemisphere Lateralization Hemispheric specialization Left hemisphere Specialized for language for most people Logical analytical Right hemisphere Softer aspects of life creativity music processing faces Holistic perception synthesizes elements


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