SCOM 121: POWER Chapter 7 notes and notes for that wee
SCOM 121: POWER Chapter 7 notes and notes for that wee SCOM 121 0003
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SCOM 121 0003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gab Calderon on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Chapter 7: Power High power individuals- more likely to interrupt others, to speak out of turn and to fail to look at others who are speaking. Power: ability to influence the attainment of goals sought by you or others. Every message has 2 basic dimensions- content (communicates info regarding events and objects) and relationship (identifies how power is being distributed between individuals) Forms of power: Dominance- exercise of power over others. Its competitive, win lose transaction. You either win or lose. (I win, you lose) Prevention- power used to thwart the influence of others. When someone tried to dominant you try to prevent the dominance. (you win, I lose) Work against another Empowerment- power derived from enhancing the capabilities, choices and influence of individuals and groups. Cooperative & just accomplish task. (we all win) work together Dominance prevention power- individuals react to the power initiatives of others by fighting back. It’s self-protective. Indicators of power: Those who can define others are typically recognized as having power in relationships and groups. Teachers define students as smart or slow and bosses say employees are hard working or sluggish. Who cares less about maintaining a relationship. Principal of least interest- indicates that the person who cares less about continuing a relationship is typically recognized as having more power. Whose decisions are followed. Employees follow the directives of supervisors not the other way around. Like children obey parents not vice versa. Behavioral inhibition. The more powerful are usually more vocal in groups and express of their opinions. Verbal indications of power- Speech patterns- hedges (Im a little worried that this might not work out), hesitations (well, um, uh shouldn’t we), tag question (dinner is at 6, okay?), disclaimers (you may disagree but…), Excessive politeness (im extremely sorry to interrupt) Males tend to talk more and longer in groups and are verbally aggressive, direct and opinionated. This depends on the topic being talked about obviously. Cultures is an indicator of power- Asian want harmony but in west they curse to demand power Non-verbal indications of power- Silent treatment- Clothing- uniforms have power and authority. Touch- Eye contact- the more powerful person makes more eye contact. Space- like bigger office space is high up person. Power resources- anything that enables individuals to achieve their goals, assists other to achieve their goals and interferes with the goal attainment of others. Information- teachers have info that valuable to students to learn. Priests are the same way. Its power resource because it is restricted to students and laypersons by their limited background and experience. Expertise- knows how to use the info wisely and skillfully. It’s a power resource because the person is perceived to have the requisite skills, abilities, knowledge and background to function as a real expert. Also because experts can be considered trustworthy. Legitimate authority- someone who is perceived to have a right to direct others’ behavior because of his or her positon, title, role, experience or knowledge. Rewards and punishments- bonuses, hiring’s, money, freedom and privacy. Coercive Personal qualities- what ppl find attractive is called charism like good looks dynamism, persuasive skills and charm. Effect of power imbalance- Relationship failure- both partners have to be sharing power. Couples have to accept each others influence. Relationship aggression- men tend to be more aggressive. Aggression is any physical or verbal communication that is intended to inflict harm. Direct aggression is hostile communication that targets the victim openly, such as pushing, shoving, physically assaulting or shouting insults. Indirect aggression is hostile communication that intends to hard a targeted person while avoiding identification as an aggressor such as gossiping, spreading malicious rumors or sabotaging behind the victims back. Verbal and nonverbal abuse- Contempt is intended to insult and emotionally abuse a person. 1. Contempt can be communicated by verbal insults and name- calling. 2. Hostile humor communicates contempt like that “it is only a joke.” 3. Mockery communicates contempt because you mock others by imitating them. 4. Certain body movements communicate contempt like rolling eyes. Sexual harassment- verbal or nonverbal communication of sexual nature that is unwelcome by the recipient and is likely to interfere with the victims work. Quid pro quo harassment- occurs when the more powerful person requires sexual favor from the less powerful person in exchange for keeping a job, getting a high grade in a class or landing a promotion. Hostile environment harassment- employees have a right to work in situations free form discriminatory insult, ridicule and intimidation. Common place difficulties- Doctor-patient relationships arent equal. Patients wait forever for doctors. Balancing power: Coalition- individuals form temporary alliances to increase their power relative to others. (them verse us) Defiance- unambiguous purposeful noncompliance. Refusal to give in to those with greater power. Resistance0 cover, ambiguous noncompliance. Assertiveness- ability to communicate full range of your thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill. Mentors- are knowledgeable individuals who have achieved some success in their profession or job and who assist people trying to get started in a line of works. Networking- another form of empowerment which people with similar backgrounds, skills and goals come together on a fairly regular basis and share information. NOTES 3-28-16: Recognize power through confidence, deference Power- ability to influence the attainment of goals sought by you or others. (Interpersonal power) 3 types of power: I wrote it above… Forms of Power Indicators of power: I wrote it above Is power bad? No. Power infuses all interactions Power is relational. Does not reside in the person No one is all powerful or completely powerless. We need to consider an ethical power of balance. Power resource- I wrote it above Power and language- Project opinions with confidence Lack of disclaimers (I’m not sure if this is what you were looking for but here it is) Hedges- (Could I just have a minute of you time) Mitigated speech/indirectness Tag questions- ask permission (we should finish right?) Ritual apologies, excessive politeness Notes 3-30-16 Power & practices- Mansplaining- power is evident is who gets to define the term. Men always correct what women say. Now it has a get-out-of-jail free card like women when a man say error. Manspreading- Control of time and space… like doctors who charge if you are late but we cant charge them. Also in classrooms like syllabus and the way room is set up. The effects of power imbalance Relationships: failure, physical violence, verbal and nonverbal abuse Workplace relations: sexual harassment, verbal and nonverbal abuse bullying Contempt, a practice of power imbalance Contempt- intended insult and emotional abuse Contempt!! Biggest failure in a relationship Verbal insults directly Hostile humor. Masked. “its only a joke” Mockery NV’s- the eye roll, the sneer Tools to balance power Coalitions- power of the many. join to make a big group Defiance- overt Resistance- cover (passive aggression) Assertiveness- passive is others’ needs and aggressive are your needs. So assertiveness is not common anymore because no one wants to seem rude. Assertiveness research Mutual research Reduces stress & anger Consistency look at leaders for Lack of self-awareness (NV’s play a role) Being assertive- ask for what you want/need in a way that keeps in mind others needs and feelings Develop personal power resources Focus on addressing problems and issues, not on people When we don’t claim power Women don’t ask for negotiating salary Women worry about how it will affect relationships Women have a perception things are already fixed Women expect life is fair, all are treated equally