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Microbiology test 3 week 2

by: UNT_Scientist

Microbiology test 3 week 2 Biol 2041

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Biology > Biol 2041 > Microbiology test 3 week 2

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About this Document

These notes are what was covered in lecture.
Daniel Kunz
Class Notes
Microbiology, test, notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
o Mutation   Occurrences  8   spontaneously 1X10  Chemical mutagens   point   Uses a single base   Segments of DNA 1<  Physical changes   X­rays,radiation  Point mutation   Segments   Aflatoxin   Benzpyrene   Normal   only transcribed DNA strand, it is fully active   (Missense)Transition  Point mutation   Substitute purine for purine, or pyrimidine for prymaidine   Altered polypeptide chain, one wrong, may still be active, likely to  have partial activity or no activity (leaky)  Example  Sickle cell anemia   (Nonsense) Transversion   Point mutation   Substitute purine for a pyrimidine   Mutation to stop codon no further polypeptide synthesized.  Results in an inactive truncated polypeptide chain   (frameshift) insertion   Point mutation   Addition of a new amino acid causing the reading frame to be  moved down   (Frameshift) deletion   Point mutation   Taking out of an amino acid causing the reading frame to shift  upward result in the wrong polypeptide and no activity   (Frameshift) Insertion deletion   Results from adding an amino acid and taking out of another,  there is a temporary reading frame shift partly wrong China may  still be active   Replica plating   Aka mutant detection   Selection   Will this organism grow in minimal media   Negative selection   Wild type ­normal   Phototroph ­  Auxotroph is his   Gene expression and regulation o Genetic capacity   Average Molecular weight of polypeptide = 30,000 Dal   Average molecular weight of amino acid = 100 Dal   30,000/100= 300 amino acid average per polypeptide   300 amino acids per polypeptide X 3 base pair per codon = 900 base pairs per gene   When going from a # of base pairs to a # of genes   # base pairs/ 900 =# of genes in an organism  When going from a # of genes to a # of base pairs   # of genes in an organism X 900= # of base pairs in an organism  o Gene organization   Operons   Read the book   Intervening sequences   Global control   Multiple operons   Figure 8.14  The dual action of repressor and the catabolite activation protein in LAC  expression  When glucose is high the cyclicAMP level will be low  When the glucose is low the cyclic AMP is high   Glucose level  lactose level  operon  event + + off CAP not bound  + ­ off no CAP bond no lac ­ ­ off no lac ­ + on lac are not bond CAP bond   microRNA’s miRNAs can control gene expression post­ transcriptionaly   Fig 8.16  Viruses chapter 13  o History   Latin name   Virus­ poison   Originally definite do and an infectious agent that passes through  the filter   First virus discovered tobacco mosaic TMV by ivanowski in Russia (1892) and beijerinck in holland (1899)   First one to infect plants   Second virus discovered foot in mouth disease hoeffler and  Frosch 1898   First one to infect animals   Third virus discovered yellow fever discovered by Walter Reed  (1900)   Infects humans   o General properties   Filterable   <.2um   Obligate intracellular parasites   Metabolism is absent   Composed of DNA or RNA plus a protein coat (usually)   Propagation totally dependent on host cell machinery  o How classified   Type of nucleic acid   Structure­enveloped vs nonenveloped   Enveloped   Noneveloped   Geometry­ helical vs polyhedral   Helical   Polyhedral    Size   Human red blood cell 10000 no   Ebola 97 nm   Host/tissue symptoms log   Immunological “serotyping” o Groups of infecting vertebrates   Non Enveloped,polyhedral do DNA   Adenovirus   Upper respiratory infections   Papovavirus   Shope’s papilloma “human warts”  Enveloped, polyhedral as DNA  Herpesviruses   Herpes simplex  Cold sores and fever blisters ­type 1  Genital herpes ­type 2  Herpes zoster (shingles in middle age)  Infectious mononucleosis   Enveloped, complex, do DNA   Poxviruses­  Variola (smallpox) very large size  Naked,polyhedral, Ss RNA  Picornaviruses  Smallest RNA viruses known  Poliovirus  Rhinovirus (common cold)   Hepatitis  o Vocabulary   Conventional virion   Nucleic acid + protein   Unconventional prion   Protein (infected)  Sheep scrapie  Viroid   Nuclei can acid   Potato spindle tuber virus 300­400 base pairs  o How to tell if there is a virus present or that it is infected   Bacteria   Mix the virus with the bacteria   The cells are lysed and create and area of clearing known as  plaques   We then count the number of plaques (each plaque representing  one virus)  This is know as the viral titer to determine the viral count   Animals   Propagate in living animals or in embryo acted eggs  o Growth period   One­step growth curve   10­30 min for bacteriophage   6­8 hrs for picot a virus (common cold)   40 hrs for herpes 


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