New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PHI 236 Week 10 Lecture Notes

by: Haley J Schuhl

PHI 236 Week 10 Lecture Notes PHI 236

Marketplace > Illinois State University > PHIL-Philosophy > PHI 236 > PHI 236 Week 10 Lecture Notes
Haley J Schuhl
GPA 3.59

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover everything we went over in class 3/29 and 3/31
Values and the Environment
Todd Stewart, Ph.D
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Values and the Environment

Popular in PHIL-Philosophy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 236 at Illinois State University taught by Todd Stewart, Ph.D in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Values and the Environment in PHIL-Philosophy at Illinois State University.


Reviews for PHI 236 Week 10 Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/03/16
Tuesday 3/29/16 Still talking about Schmidtz from last Thursday  ● Economic incentives, especially to people living in an area (think about who will  be affected), matter (when making policies) ● Preservationist policies can sometimes backfire and have perverse incentives  ● What successful policies tend to do? ○ Tend to provide local peoples with economic incentives to protect  the environment White reading ● Knobthorn trees are put under pressure by elephants, and baobab trees  ● Elephants have two many species: African (bush and forest elephants might be  two species within the African elephants, vulnerable) and Asian(endangered, more in  danger than African elephants ○ African elephants: browsers → look for food in the trees, look up for food ○ Asian elephants: grazers → focus on grass, look down for their food ○ Herbivores, can eat up to over 300 pounds of food per day  ○ They have pretty bad digestive systems so their dung often have  undigested seeds (sometimes birds can make meals out of elephant dung) ● Social Structure ○ They live in small families, usually led by matriarch (generally the  eldest female) ○ When male elephants reach maturity they leave the group → become a loner or might form bachelor groups, they might go back to their group when they’re ready to mate ○ Social structure is very important to them, would cause a lot of  stress to break up a group  ● Matriarchs remember information about food location and when to start  migration, and the different migration paths  ● Learn quickly as babies instead of their knowledge coming from instinct, more of  blank slates like we are when we’re born ● Keystone species: many other species rely on keystone for their survival  ● There appears to be a cycle between low forest and savannah, elephants get rid  of the trees and then other animals move in and the trees grow back  ● Elephant intelligence:  ○ There is an elephant that passed the mirror test → the ability to recognize their reflection as themselves, self recognition ○ They engage in tool use → the will rip branches off trees and use them as fly swatters, they will dig to expand water and then put mud balls on top to keep them from evaporating ○ Complicated cognitive maps, map of where all the food will be  available and at what time during the year ○ Learn social rules  ○ Neocortex is highly convoluted (more convoluted, the more  intelligence) ○ Engage in sophisticated behaviors (raiding villages to eat grain  and things) ○ Low rumbles can communicate over vast differences (tens of  miles) ● Can live around 70 years → their long lifespan means that they don’t cycle through quickly at all ● Move about 6­12 miles per day but can move as much as 110 miles in a day  ● Seasonal migrations, up to about 200 miles  ● “Home range” for an elephant is about 35X35 kilometers square ● Elephant mourning: elephants will touch the recent dead, might return to burial  area of a long deceased family member and might touch or gently pick up the bones  ● Elephants seem to be owed some level of respect  ● What problems generate the crisis here? ○ We’re not sure how elephant reproduction cycles work? Hot  season, wet season? Doesn’t seem to influence their reproduction for  elephants… They reproduce at a very steady rate regardless of how many  resources are available ○ Very little elephants get killed, hard to hunt, difficult for a sickness  to kill them, what kept their population in check historically?   ○ “Island” preserves, less and less space available, they will break  through and go in the direction they want ○ More humans → more confrontations that often don’t end well (they come through on their ancient route and rip up large portions of a crop) ○ Migrating by nature, won’t stay in one spot all year ○ They shape the environment around them, use up all available  resources and then move onto the next hot spot  ○ Less room to migrate means that they impact the local  environment more because they can’t move onto the next space  ○ When resources become scarce, their behaviors become more  destructive  ● What are the options ○ Culling (hunting maybe? Sell a number of permits) ○ Translocate ○ Contraceptives ○ Expand their territory ○ Bring in food for them ○ Combo of the options  ○ Integrate elephants into the community in some better way  ● Often the problem is that any solution would be very expensive  Thursday 3/31/16 Going over White Article some more ● Elephant management options ○ Culling → keep them at target population, and what does target population mean? ○ Range extension → money and delays ○ Contraceptives → expensive ○ Let them be (let them starve after destroying their local  environment)  ○ Better integrate them into society  ○ Translocation → very expensive, elephants might just return to their home range, moving the problem to another location ○ Give them food Hardin Article (1974) ● The Baby Boom caused the public to worry about over population  ● Loosely in favor of reproduction policies ● The problem that freaked people out were population projections (exponential  growth of earth’s population) ● Two models for typical population growth  ○ K-model → relatively stable, population slightly exceeds the carrying capacity, then the population decreases to under it, hovers right near carrying capacity (grows and then stagnates) ○ R-selection model → exponential growth and then crash to almost nothing ● It looks like the projections were incorrect­ we think that the population should  stabilize around 2050 or 2060  ○ Many places are having more steady population growth rate, and  some even have negative growth rates (Japan and Germany)  ● More developed countries tend to have lower growth rates; maybe countries with  out of control population growth are due to low GDP ● It’s thought that human population will stabilize around 10 billion people → this still might be over the carrying capacity ● What is a carry capacity? The level at which species can safely sustain  themselves given the resources in their ecosystem. The number of organisms that can  inhabit a geographic area without degrading the environment.  ● Tragedy of the commons ○ Commons: a space anyone can use (nobody owns it or we all own it), no exclusion ○ Happens when an individual benefits from overuse but the group  as a whole suffers more  ■ Suppose there are ten shepherds with ten animals  each. 100 animals total can survive on a section of land. Each animal is  worth  $1. The total value of the herd is $100 ($10 per shepherd).  Suppose if they go over 100 animals total, then they’re worth 95 cents  each. 101 animals value = $95.95. Everyone loses but there is incentive  for a specific shepherd to have more animals to make more money.  ○ A situation where there’s a certain incentive structure to overuse  something ○ Hardin says that overpopulation itself is a tragedy of the commons ○ Overgrazing/land use ○ Overfishing  ○ Pollution of air/water/etc  ● We treat a lot of air and water as commons 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.