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Chapter 6 Validity Notes

by: Chris Pulcher-Coard

Chapter 6 Validity Notes PSY 3400

Chris Pulcher-Coard
GPA 3.904

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About this Document

Psychological Measurement with George Cliette: This complete set of notes covers Chapter 6 of the book dealing with test validity. Includes highlighting in the document and looks at the main constr...
Psychological Measurement
Dr. George Cliette
Class Notes
validity, psych, Psychology, Psychological, measurement, Cliette, George, NCCU, North, carolina, central, University, Chapter, Six, 6, highlight, Highlighting, notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Pulcher-Coard on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3400 at North Carolina Central University taught by Dr. George Cliette in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Psychological Measurement in Psychlogy at North Carolina Central University.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psych Measurements Validity Chapter 6 ~Validity – how well a test measures what it purports to measure - Validation – the process of gathering/evaluating evidence about validity - Face Validity – whether or not a test appears to measure what it purports to measure to the testtaker; may have serious effect on testtaker’s motivation ~Test Blueprint – birthed from research into what tr8’s/behaviors ~Trinarian View of Validity – there are 3 types of validity: - Content Validity – how adequately a test samples some behavior and how representative that behavior is in the universe of behaviors (Ex. Assertiveness in the universe of aggression)  Lawshee – developed a method for gauging agreement b/w judges on how essential a behavior/tr8/skill is regard to the “universe” of behavior/tr8/skill; judges are selected to determine whether a behavior/tr8/skill is: “essential”, “useful but not essential”, “not essential” (measured by the Content Validity Ratio) - Criterion-Related Validity – measure of how adequately some test score can predict the pass/fail on some related criterion  Criterion Contamination – when a criterion measure is based on some predictor value  Concurrent Validity – when test scores and criterion measure are obtained at the same time, the relationship b/w the 2 prove concurrent validity st  Predictive Validity – when test scores are obtained 1 and used to predict the pass/fail on some later criterion  B/w the admin of both tests, some intervening events may occur which affect the criterion pass/fail state  Issues of restricted range (who actually takes the test) may also affect the criterion-rel8’d validity: for a self-selection test which measures some tech-rel8’d skill, only tech savvy people may be willing to take it, inflating test scores  Incremental Validity – how an additional predictor may explain something extra about a criterion measure w/out overlapping an already-existing factor (confusing, right?) (Example: time in the spent in the library is an extra predictor which may give extra insight into someone’s GPA)  Expectancy Data – using a score on some test to determine the likelihood a testtaker will score w/in some interval of scores on a criterion measure  Expectancy Tables – show % of ppl who scored w/in some score interval who also scored w/in some criterion category later  Naylor-Shine Tables – expectancy table that obtains the difference b/w the means of the selected and unselected groups to derive an index of what the test adds to some predictor  Base Rate – extent to which a tr8/behavior exists in a population  Hit Rate – the proportion of ppl a test accurately identifies as having an attribute  Miss Rate – proportion of ppl a test fails to id as having/not having an attribute (false positive or false negative) - Construct Validity – Judgement about the appropriateness of inferences drawn from the test scores  A construct is an informed scientific idea hypothesized to explain some behavior  Evidence proving construct validity may include: homogeneity, test scores increasing/decreasing as a function of time or some experimental manipulation  Method of Contrasted Groups – scores obtained by diff groups vary based upon some hypothesis/theory (test in vernacular my vary based on cultural differences or the like)  Convergent Evidence – if scores on one test which are undergoing construct validation correl8 highly w/score on a previously construct validated test which was used to measure a similar construct (in the predicted direction)  Discriminate Evidence – when the validity coefficient shows an insignificant relationship b/w test scores and variables which should, theoretically, not be correlated (akin to proving by disproving)  Factor Loading – concept that a test carries a certain amount of abilities that have a determining influence on the test score  Factor Analysis – mathematical procedures to determine or ID factors in which ppl differ (meaning those which test should measure)  Explanatory Factor Analysis – conducted to find out what factors differ, decide how many factors to retain in the assessment, and how to rotate the factors to an interpretable orientation w/in the assessment  Confirmatory Factor Analysis – mathematical procedures employed when a factor structure is already set or hypothesized; tests its fit w/the observed relationships b/w variables  Multitr8-Multimethod Matrix – examining convergent and divergent validity evidence to determine construct validity  Values of various tr8’s are obtained by various methods, creating a matrix of correlation values ~Bias – a factor inherent in a test that systematically prevents accurate, impartial measurement ~Regression Lines – used to predict success on some criterion that would need to be scrutinized in terms of: - Validity coefficient - Reliability coefficient - The intercept – intercept bias is the point where the regression line hits the y-axis - The slope – slope bias is when a test yeilds a systematically diff validity coefficient - The error of estimate ~Rating – judgement which places a person along some numerical/linguistic continuum - Rating Error – judgment resulting from the misuse of a rating scale - Leniency Error – rater giving leniency to the test taker; score the test easier as compared to other tests - Severity Error – opposite of the above - Central Tendency Error – hesitance of the rater to respond at either end of the spectrum - Halo Effect – in the rater’s eyes, the test taker can do nothing wrong, resulting in a higher score than deserved (If you liked Miley Cyrus and were asked to evaluate her performance at some concert, you would most likely score it highly) - Fairness – the extent to which a test is used in an impartial, just, and equitable way


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