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Chapter 7 Utility

by: Chris Pulcher-Coard

Chapter 7 Utility PSY 3400

Chris Pulcher-Coard
GPA 3.904

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About this Document

Psychological Measurement with George Cliette: This complete set of notes covers Chapter 7 of the book dealing with a test's utility. Includes highlighting in the document and looks at the main con...
Psychological Measurement
Dr. George Cliette
Class Notes
utility, psych, Psychology, Psychological, measurements, NCCU, North, carolina, central, University, George, Cliette, highlight, Highlighting, concepts, key, notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Pulcher-Coard on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3400 at North Carolina Central University taught by Dr. George Cliette in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychological Measurement in Psychlogy at North Carolina Central University.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psych Measurements Utility Chapter 7 ~Utility – Usefulness/practicality of a test ~Factors which may affect a test’s utility: - Psychometric Soundness – a test is psychometrically sound if it is high in terms of its reliability and validity coefficients (reliability sets a ceiling on validity and validity sets a ceiling on utility) - Just because a test is psychometrically sound does not mean it is high in utility (an adhesive drug patch that sticks to the arm may test for drug levels in the blood successfully and hold reliable results when administered properly, but if the patch is administered by the person receiving the test and often poorly placed, the test might be low in utility, though high in validity and reliability) - Cost – the cost of a test may mean monetary cost or relate to non- monetary factors: such as the loss of confidence in some tool, product or service (when a tool becomes obsolete or is replaced by a more accurate tool of measurement) or the marginal test application cost in terms of time consumption vs. efficiency of the extra administration (1 xray a finger might be Just as useful as 2 xrays of the same finger, and so the second xray is unnecessary) - Benefits – benefits of a test may be economic or non-monetary (better job-placement test may mean better employees which may mean less training needed) ~Utility Analysis – family of techniques used to complete a cost-benefit analysis used in discerning te usefulness and practicality of an assessment tool - Expectancy Data – expectancy table correl8’s a test score w/a likely criterion measure - Bogden-Cronback-Gleser Formula – cost benefit analysis in terms of money (do not need to know the formula) ~Considerations to be made when determining utility: - Pool of applicants available (for example, if offered the job due to high test scores, will an applicant accept in a competitive job market) - Complexity of the testing subject (Ex. For more complex jobs, ppl will vary on how well or how poorly they do on a test regarding the job) - Cut Scores – reference point derived from judgement and used to divide a data set into 2 or more classes  Relative Cut Scores – a reference point in a distribution of scores used to divide a data set into classifications (top 10% of the class gets an “A”) (A.K.A. Norm-Referenced Cut Scores  Fixed Cut Score – set w/reference to a minimum level of proficiency (absolute cut score) (An “A” is designated for scores b/w 100 and 90)  Multiple Cut Scores – use of 2 or more cut scores for a particular predictor (Ex. Cut scores of school-test grading: A, B, C, D, F)  Multiple Hurdle – when an assessment has at least one cut score for every predictor used (multiple hurdles in a call-center employment test may include: typing speed, soft skills with people, software knowledge, etc.)  Compensatory Model of Selection – sometimes used w/multiple hurdle tests: excelling in one predictor may make up for low scores in another predictor (may have great typing skills but poor software knowledge and may still be employed b/c the employer can train you with regard to the software) ~Methods of setting Cut Scores: - Angoff Method – purpose is to determine the presence/absence of an attribute within a testtaker: judges estimate how ppl w/minimum competency of some attribute would answer a give test item  Not efficient when judges show low inter-rater reliability - Known Groups Method – (method of contrasting groups) collection of data from groups known to possess and not to possess a given attribute, seeing how they answer test items, and then creating cut scores - IRT (Item Response Theory) Methods – cut scores are based on the test-taker’s performance; they must attain a set ratio of correct over incorrect (Ex. Must get a 6/10 in order to pass the test)  Item-Mapping Method – items are put on a histogram and are grouped based on item difficulty; judges are asked if a minimally competent person could answer a group on the histogram correctly at least half of the time; if not, then the cut score is set below that group  Bookmark method – experts are trained w/regard to minimal level of competency and are give a book of test question w/one test question per page, with the questions become increasing difficult; a bookmark is placed to separate the questions which cross from those that should be able to be answered and those that should not be able to be answered with that minimum competency level. - Discriminant Analysis – family of statistical techniques to demonstrate relationships b/w certain variables and two naturally occurring groups (those who pass and those who don’t)


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