Week 3 Notes - Sociology 101
Week 3 Notes - Sociology 101 SOC101
Popular in Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 4971 views. For similar materials see Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology in Sociology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/31/15
Sociology 1271512915 Chapter 56 Week 3 Social Experience The Key to Our Humanity Ch 51 o the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a selfidentity and the physical mental and social skills needed for survival in a particular culture 0 a person s fairly consistent patterns of acting thinking and feeHng o developed by John B Watson 18781958 behavior is not instinctive but learned Watson rooted human behavior not in nature but in nurture O being cut off from the social world is harmful isolated by her family for 5 years caused permanent damage 0 Age 8 mental development was less than that of a 2 yearold Age 10 began to use words Anna s mother was mentally retarded Anna may have been also 0 Anna died at age 10 of a blood disorder possibly related to the years of abuse more than 6 years of virtual isolation Benefited from intensive learning program from psychologists within a week of the program she began trying to speak and after a year and a half she knew about 2000 words 0 Psychologists spent 2 years giving her 6 years of development 0 Age 14 attending 6th grade classes abused by parents tied to a potty chairquot from age 2 0 Age 13 rescued and only weighed 59 lbs had the mental development of a 1 yearold With treatment physically healthy but language was that of a young child 0 Today lives in a home for developmentally disabled adults 0 0 Individual Learning Processes the unconscious mind shapes behavior 0 Formation of Self the ego emerges from tension between id and superego Relationship with Society societal expectations are part of the superego Originators associated primarily with the work of Freud but others such as Chodorow also Sociology Chapter 56 1271512915 Week 3 0 Individual Learning Processes learning is a response to social stimuli Formation of Self the self emerges from interaction between the mental and social worlds 0 Relationship with Society children learn logical principles that they apply to understand the external world 0 Originators associated with the work of Piaget and Kohlberg Individual Learning Processes the individual learns by taking on the role of others 0 Formation of Self the self emerges via interaction with social expectations 0 Relationship with Society expectations form the context for learning roles and the expectations of these roles Originators associated with the work of Mead Cooley Garfinkel and others Understanding Socialization Chapter 52 o Latin for it represents the human being s basic drives 0 Unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction 0 Present at birth making a newborn demand attention touching and food 0 Society opposes the selfcentered id 0 One of the first words a child typically learns is no Latin for I a person s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasureseeking drives with the demands of society 0 become aware of our distinct existence and face the fact that we cannot have everything we want Latin for above or beyond the egoquot the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual 0 Tells us why we cannot have everything we want Begins to form as a child becomes aware of parental demands and matures as the child comes to understand that everyone s behavior should take account for cultural norms o Sociology 1271512915 Chapter 56 Week 3 O Hold that the individual develops a personality via learned response to social behavior 0 18691980 Swiss psychologist studied human cognition how people think and understand 0 Age 015 Level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses Learns through senses and movement l gt L0 D H U39l l 0 Level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols Learns through symbols I gt L0 D l H H 0 Level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings Learns to handle logical operations shifts perspective for abstraction gt L0 D H N 0 Level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically Able to handle more complex and abstract thoughts 0 1981 built on Piaget s work to study moral reasoning or how individuals judge situations as right or wrong 0 0 Stage 1 Punishment and Obedience Orientation 0 Stage 2 Na39I39ve Instrumental Hedonism 0 Stage 3 GoodBoyNice Girlquot Morality 0 Stage 4 LawandOrder Orientation 0 Stage 5 Social Contract Orientation 0 Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principles Sociology 1271512915 Chapter 56 Week 3 o 18631931 developed the theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual s personality part of an individual s personality composed of selfawareness and selfimage 0 Not there at birth it develops o Develops only with social experience as the individual interacts with others 0 Social experience is the exchange of symbols ex wave of the hand or smile to create meaning 0 Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people s intentions A dog responds to what you do a human responds to what you have in mind as you do it 0 Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other s point of view Using symbols we imagine ourselves in another person s shoesquot and see ourselves as that person does H I m A H O N O v A selfimage based on how we think others see us As we interact with others the people around us become a mirror an object that people used to call a looking glassquot 0 Taking the role of the other we become selfaware One part of the self operates as the subject being active and spontaneous works as an object the way we imagine others see us people such as parents who have special importance for socialization refer to widespread cultural norms and values we use as reference in evaluating ourselves 19021994 explained that we face challenges throughout the life course Sociology 1271512915 Chapter 56 Week 3 Infancy the challenge of trust vs mistrust Birth 18 months have to establish a sense of trust that their world is a safe place Toddlerhood the challenge of autonomy vs doubt amp shame To age 3 learn skills to cope with the world in a confident way Preschool the challenge of initiative vs guilt 4 and 5 yearolds must learn to engage their surroundings or experience guilt at failing to meet the expectations of parents and others Preadolescence the challenge of industriousness vs inferiority Ages 613 children enter school make friends and strike out on their own either feel proud of their accomplishments or fear they do not measure up Adolescence the challenge of gaining identify vs confusion Teen years identify with others but want to be unique Young Adulthood the challenge of intimacy vs isolation 0 Form and maintain intimate relationships with others Middle Adulthood the challenge of making a difference vs selfabsorption Contributing to the lives of others in the family at work and in the larger world Old age the challenge of integrity vs despair 0 People hope to look back on what they have accomplished with a sense of integrity and satisfaction Resocialization Total Institutions Chapter 55 o a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff 0 radically changing an inmate s personality by carefully controlling the environment Sociology 1271512915 Chapter 56 Week 3 Questions 0 According to most sociologists what role does biology play in personality Nurture matters more than nature but people do inherit a potential to develop certain traits and abilities o What role does socialization play in early childhood It develops human personality 0 Social isolation of young permanently limits language acquisition and other development 0 How might socially isolated children such as Anna respond when presented with a toy such as a dollhouse They would be uninterested in playing with it o Sigmund Freud believed that personality development is initially driven by instinct or drives rooted in our biology 0 Which of Kohlberg s and Piaget s stages of development are most similar 0 Preconventional and Sensorimotor 0 According to Mead what is self A combination of selfawareness and selfimage 0 Which of Erikson s stages are people most likely to fall in love Young Adulthood 0 Which of the following best describes Kohlberg s theory of moral development Individuals move through three stages of moral reasoning Preconventional conventional and Postconventional 0 Which of the following probably has the greatest influence in the process of producing a welladjusted child Family 0 Which of the following factors is probably the most important reason that it is difficult to determine the exact onset of adulthood Class matters a lot because for wealthy people childhood and adolescence last much longer than for poor people 0 Which of the following statements about racial identity in the US is correct An increasing number of people identify themselves as mixed race 0 How do the mass media affect rural areas in the US The mass media bring rural and urban culture closer together 0 How does stereotyping affect student performance Students tend to live up to or down to their stereotypes o What disadvantages do lowerincome children face in an increasingly technologydriven world Sociology Chapter 56 0 1271512915 Week 3 They have less money and therefore less access to computers and other high technology Why do many people in the US feel that they lose some of their social identities as they enter old age As people enter old age they retire from roles that have given them identity pleasure and prestige How does health among today s elderly people differ from that found in the past Today39s elderly are healthier than the previous generations How does social class affect longevity in the US The wealthy live longer because they have greater resources to spend on healthenhancing things such as healthcare Which of the following concepts correctly identifies the goal of the total institution Forced Resocialization What is the second part or phrase of the Resocialization process in a total institution such as a prison Introducing a system of rewards and punishments to encourage specific behavior Sociology 1271512915 Chapter 56 Week 3 Status Chapter 62 a social position that a person holds all the statuses a person holds at a given time A teenage girl may be a daughter to her parents sister to her brother a student at her school and a goalie on her soccer team 0 a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life 0 a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort status that has special importance for social identity often shaping a person s entire life O O 0 Role Chapter 63 behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status a number of roles attached to a single status conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses tension among the roles connected to a single status people disengage from important social roles 00000 The Social Construction of Reality 0 the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction 0 situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences 0 the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings o technology that links people in social activity The Dramaturgical Analysis The Presentation of Self Chapter 65 o the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance 0 a person s efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others 0 communicating using body movements gestures and facial expressions rather than speech Sociology 1271512915 Chapter 56 Week 3 Questions 0 What is an example of an achieved status Honor Roll Student 0 What is the process by which people act and react in relation to others Social interaction 0 Why is blindness sometimes classified as a master status Blindness can become the personal trait that others respond to more than any other 0 Martha works parttime doing house cleaning and watches her tenyearold niece in the mornings At night she takes courses at the local community college in hopes of receiving her MA in business What correctly describes Martha s status set Worker aunt student 0 Laura is an Asian American girl born to a young mother and adopted by a middleaged African American couple She is raised in a relative wealth attends college and goes on to become a district attorney and now has a daughter of her own Which of the following is an example of Laura s ascribed status Asian American 0 How do ascribed status and achieved status compare An ascribed status is assigned but an achieved status is largely earned o What is an example that illustrates the concept of role strain A parent attempts to be a loving companion while still maintaining discipline over a child 0 We experience what when we find ourselves pulled in various directions as we try to respond to the many statuses that we hold Role Conflict o The process of role exit typically begins as people what Begin to doubt their ability to continue in a certain role 0 The term role set refers to what A number of different roles attached to a single status 0 Ethnomethodology is the study of what The way people make sense of their everyday lives 0 What statement best expresses the main point of the Thomas Theorem If you believe in yourself strongly enough you will succeedquot 0 One approach that allows us to study the way people understand everyday realities is called what Ethnomethodology Sociology Chapter 56 0 1271512915 Week 3 Because many cultural systems are marked by cultural diversity reality construction usually involves what Tensions and choices What concept refers to one way to study how people make sense of their everyday surroundings Ethnomethodology What best describes Erving Goffman s presentation of selfquot It is the efforts of a person to convey information to others and control the impressions that other people have of him or her In dramaturgical analysis the concept of status is comparable to what theatrical element A part or a character Tact is commonly employed in everyday interaction because Embarrassment creates discomfort for everyone Using dramaturgical analysis what is like a script in a play supplying dialogue and action A Role A person s hands face and body are all used in the process of Nonverbal communication Happiness surprise and fear are examples of Universal emotions Janie works as a flight attendant While on the job she smiles and talks cheerfully with travelers Janie s actions are an example of An emotional script provided by an employer When added to a word the suffixes ette and ess usually Devalue the word How is humor created By contrasting conventional and unconventional reality Comedians create an inside joke by Requiring the audience to fill in the reality construction with their own knowledge