World History II: Chinese Nationalism and the Vietnam War
World History II: Chinese Nationalism and the Vietnam War HIST 1020 -012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Chinese Nationalism I. Imperialism and sources of nationalism A. Opium War (183942): conflict between Britain and China. Britain was growing opium in India and selling it to China. China tried to resist because opium had debilitating effects on its population, prompting Britain to attack. As a result, parts of China were opened where foreigners were not subject to Chinese law but rather to the laws of their own countries, which were rarely enforced. B. Taiping Rebellion (185064): expression of the people’s dissatisfaction with their government. 13 million people died. a. Hong Xiuquan: took the Chinese civil service exam 5 times and never passed, so was never allowed into the government. Embraced Christianity as a result, but put his own spin on it. Came to believe that he was the brother of Jesus Christ. Thought traditional Chinese religious views were bad, that they were worshiping demons. b. Became leader of rebellion that blamed everything on the Manchu Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of China who had been helpless to stop Westerners from taking advantage of China. C. Boxer Rebellion (1900): Boxers started attacking foreigners II. Early Nationalist Movement A. Dr. Sun Yatsen: regarded as one of the creators of modern china. Western educated, very concerned with what was happening in China (see above). Favored democracy in China. Wanted land reform and wanted to educate the peasants. B. Overthrow of Manchu/Qing Dynasty (1911): Begs the question of what government is coming next. Yatsen, who was an obvious choice for the first president, steps aside and allows Yuan Shikai to take the presidency. C. Government of Yuan Shikai: turned out to be very authoritarian dictatorial, etc. D. Formation of Kuomintang (KMT): in response to new government. Tries to overthrow Yuan Shikai. Dr. Sun must flee to Japan for a time, continues to try to take out Yuan. Yuan eventually dies, leaving KMT in charge. E. 19161926: Major civil war between KMT (Sun and his followers) and the warlords of China. In 1923, KMT realizes they need help, and turn to the West, who refuse aid. They turn to Russia instead, who sends support in the hopes of spreading communism. 1925: Sun dies, and is replaced by Chiang Kaishek, who is hugely anticommunist III. Communist Revolution A. Mao Zedong and the origins of communism: influenced by Li Dazhao, one of Mao Zedong’s professors. Preached the idea that communism could be based on peasantry, that they didn’t need their own middle class because they were fighting against the western Bourgeoisie. B. Communists in the KMT: Chiang Kaishek purged the communists from his government C. Long March (1934): Communists had power base in the Southeastern part of Chia, and knew they needed to spread if they were going to gain power. 100,000 communists set out across China, across rugged terrain towards the north, almost entirely on food, all the while fighting off the KMT in small skirmishes. Only 8,000 or so made it to the North, and they became the leadership of the communist movement in China. Validated the communist party and won them more supporters. D. Japan and WWII: 1937, Japan invades China. KMT is now still working on putting down the war lords, fighting off the communists, and now foreign invaders from Japan as well. Japan was defeated in 1943 (because of WWII and America, not because of China) E. Communist victory, 1949: Chiang flees to Taiwan and sets up his own government there, splitting China, with the mainland of China becoming communist. (Sorry, missed class Wednesday, no notes) The War in Vietnam I. Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) A. Struggle for independence: Indochina was controlled by France. In the 1930s, nationalism began to emerge with communist nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh. Began to gain followers; at the end of WWII, Minh and other leaders in Indochina went to France to request freedom. B. Civil War (1947): Minh and his communist followers go to war against the French. C. Dienbienphu (1954): major battle; said to be a turning point in world history. French are defeated by Minh and his followers, and decide to pull out of the fight. Inspirational for nationalistic countries across the globe. D. Geneva agreements: Vietnam would be divided at the 17 parallel. Ho Chi Minh received North Vietnam. The idea was that in a few years, after the dust had settles after all the conflict, there would be free elections to bring the two halves together again. II. Divided Country A. Communist north: controlled by Minh B. Struggle in the south: South Vietnam was controlled by Ngo Dinh Diem, who was catholic and represented largescale land owners. Used connections and family members to fill his staff, meaning the catholic largescale landowning minority was highly favored over the Buddhist majority. He refused the free elections, and eventually grew to be hated by his people. a. 1963: becomes so unpopular that his military stages a coup and assassinates him, eventually replacing him with Nguyen van Thieu III. U.S. Involvement A. Containment: sent money to the French in Vietnam because it was a battle against communism, and the U.S. strongly opposed communism. B. Support for Diem: only because he was anticommunist. When it became clear he was severely unpopular, they became involved in the coup that overthrew him. C. National Liberation Front (political party) and Viet Cong (military arm): wanted to get rid of Diem and U.S. involvement. Saw U.S. as substitute imperial power, so they were no better than the French. Operated in the countryside with villagers who dislike Diem and thought more favorably of communism. Were anticolonial nationalistic communists. D. Gulf of Tonkin: 16,000 Americans were stationed in South Vietnam as advisors by John F. Kennedy. After Kennedy was assassinated, he was succeeded by vice president Lyndon B. Johnson. There were rumors of (missed exactly what she said, bad things by the North Vietnamese or National Liberation Front/Viet Cong); Johnson used this as an excuse to go to Congress and request to expand American presence in Vietnam. His request was granted. E. Vietnamization (1969): Johnson is succeeded by Richard Nixon, who comes up with Vietnamization. Meant to help Vietnam be prepared to take over the war themselves, so that America could pull out of the war. F. Laos, Cambodia, and saturation bombing: soon, however, Nixon started sending more troops to occupy Laos and Cambodia. Saturation bombing was the almost constant bombing of North Vietnam; meant to break them, but only strengthened their convictions. IV.War at Home A. Television: Vietnam War was the first war covered considerably on television. Meant that every day, part of the nightly news was dedicated to coverage of the Vietnam War. Reported casualty counts, horrifying the people. B. Protest Movements: As the war went on, more and more people were upset about the war and joined protest movements. When war expanded into Cambodia, across the nation particularly in colleges where students and teachers alike staged huge protests (mostly because they were angered by the drafts) V. Deaths A. 12 million Vietnamese B. 59,000 Americans