New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 2010- Chapter 15 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 15 Notes Psyc 2010-003

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2010-003 > PSYC 2010 Chapter 15 Notes
Morgan Dimery

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the material that's on the chapter 15 section of the knowledge checklist. This stuff will be on our exam coming up this Tuesday!
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

Similar to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson


Reviews for PSYC 2010- Chapter 15 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/03/16
Chapter  15   Treatment  of  Psychological  Disorders     There  are  different  types  of  mental  health  professionals:   • Clinical  psychologist-­‐  PhD  or  PsyD,  5-­‐7  years  after  undergraduate,  deal  with   psychological  testing,  diagnosis,  and  treatment  with  insight  or  behavior   therapy.     • Counseling  psychologist-­‐  PhD,  PsyD,  or  EdD,  5-­‐7  years  after  undergraduate,   similar  to  clinical  psychologist,  but  there  is  more  focus  on  work  career,  and   adjustment  problems.   • Psychiatrist-­‐  MD,  8  years  after  undergraduate,  focuses  on  the  diagnosis  and   treatment  primarily  with  biomedical  therapies,  but  also  with  insight   therapies.   • Clinical  social  worker-­‐  MSW,  DSW,  2-­‐5  years  after  undergraduate,  deals   with  insight  and  behavioral  therapy  and  helps  inpatients  with  their  return  to   the  community.   • Psychiatric  nurse-­‐  RN,  MA,  or  PhD,  0-­‐5  years  after  undergraduate,  deals   with  inpatient  care,  insight  and  behavior  therapy.   • Counselor-­‐  BA  or  MA,  0-­‐2  years  after  undergraduate,  deals  with  vocational   counseling,  dug  counseling,  and  rehabilitation  counseling.   • Marriage  and  family  therapist-­‐  MA  or  PhD,  2-­‐5  years  after  undergraduate,   deals  with  martial/couples  therapy  and  family  therapy.       Insight  Therapy   All  insight  therapies  involve  verbal  interactions  with  the  purpose  of  enhancing  the   client’s  self-­‐knowledge  and  promoting  healthful  changes  in  their  personality  and   behavior.  There  are  different  methods  that  fall  under  insight  therapy.  They  are   psychoanalysis,  client-­‐centered  therapy,  group  therapy,  and  couples  and  family   therapy.     Psychoanalysis   Sigmund  Freud  is  one  of  the  most  well  known  psychotherapists.  This  type  of  insight   therapy  emphasizes  the  recovery  of  unconscious  conflicts,  motives,  and  defenses  by   using  techniques  such  as  free  association  and  transference.  Most  of  the  disturbances   that  Freud  dealt  with  were  phobias,  OCD,  and  conversion  disorders.  Freud  would   probe  the  client’s  unconscious  in  order  to  determine  what  was  causing  their   behavior.  In  free  association,  clients  express  their  thoughts  and  feelings  with  as  little   censorship  as  possible.  The  client  talks  about  anything  that  comes  to  their  mind,  no   matter  how  silly  or  embarrassing  it  may  be.  In  dream  analysis  the  therapist   interprets  the  client’s  dreams.  Freud  believed  that  a  person’s  dreams  were  the   number  one  way  to  get  into  their  unconscious.  Sometimes  it  is  hard  for  a  client  to   accept  the  meaning  of  their  dreams.  Freud  said  that  he  expected  some  clients  to  be   resistant.  Resistance  refers  to  mostly  unconscious  defense  maneuvers  with  the   intent  to  hinder  the  therapy.  Clients  might  do  this  because  they  don’t  want  to  face   the  painful  conflicts  that  they  have  stored  in  their  unconscious.  Therapists  have  to   deal  with  transference.  Transference  is  when  the  client  starts  to  relate  to  the   therapist  in  ways  that  mimic  slightly  negative  relationships  in  their  lives,  such  as  an   overprotective  mother  or  a  rejecting  brother.  This  allows  repressed  feelings  and   conflicts  to  be  brought  to  the  surface  during  the  therapy  session,  and  possibly   worked  through.  Freud  believes  that  once  a  client  recognizes  the  unconscious   sources  of  their  conflict  they  will  be  able  to  resolve  the  conflict.       Client-­‐Centered  Therapy   Carl  Rogers  came  up  with  this  type  of  therapy.  It  is  an  insight  therapy  that   emphasizes  providing  a  supportive  emotional  climate  for  clients.  The  clients  plays  a   major  role  in  determining  the  pace  and  direction  that  the  therapy  goes.  Rogers   believed  that  most  personal  distress  is  caused  by  incongruence  between  a  person’s   self-­‐concept  and  reality.  These  therapists  help  their  clients  realize  that  they  do  not   always  have  to  please  others  and  get  acceptance  from  everyone.  Rogers  believed   that  the  process  of  therapy  is  not  as  important  as  the  emotional  climate  where   therapy  takes  place.  It  is  important  for  there  to  be  a  warm,  supportive  climate  where   the  client  feels  safe.  He  said  that  the  best  therapeutic  climate  is  one  that  is  genuine,   has  unconditional  positive  regard  (nonjudgmental),  and  accurate  empathy   (understanding  the  client’s  point  of  view).  In  this  type  of  insight  therapy,  the  client   and  the  therapist  work  together  as  equals.  The  therapist  tries  to  make  the  client   aware  of  their  true  feelings  by  not  offering  much  advice  or  interpretation.  Their  key   task  is  clarification.  This  is  all  part  of  the  therapeutic  process.       Group  Therapy   This  involves  the  treatment  of  several  clients  at  once,  by  dealing  with  them  in  a   group  setting.  As  a  result  of  economically  reasons,  this  type  of  therapy  has  increased   over  the  years.  Usually  the  group  will  consist  of  4-­‐12  people.  Members  of  the  group   talk  about  their  problems,  share  their  viewpoints,  and  share  their  experiences.  They   give  each  other  emotional  acceptance  and  support.  The  therapist  chooses  the   members  of  the  group,  sets  goals  for  the  group,  and  makes  sure  that  no  harmful   interactions  take  place.  They  usually  are  just  like  a  part  of  the  background  unless   they  have  to  step  in.       Couples  and  Family  Therapy   In  couples  or  marital  therapy  both  partners  in  a  committed,  intimate  relationship   are  involved  and  the  relationship  issues  are  the  focus.  Family  therapy  involves  the   whole  family  being  treated  as  one.  The  main  focus  of  this  therapy  is  the  family   dynamics  and  communication.  All  extensions  of  couple  and/or  family  therapy  share   two  common  goals:  understand  the  entrenched  patterns  of  interaction  that  produce   distress  and  to  help  couples  and  families  improve  their  communication  and  have   better,  more  healthy  patterns  of  interaction.       It  is  hard  to  tell  exactly  how  well  an  insight  therapy  is  working.  One  of  the  reasons   why  is  because  of  spontaneous  remission.  This  is  when  a  client’s  disorder  clears   up  by  itself.  This  means  that  if  a  client  experiences  recovery  after  treatment  that   does  not  imply  it  was  as  a  result  of  the  treatment.  Insight  therapies  have  been   proved  to  be  better  than  no  treatment  at  all,  but  they  are  equally  as  effective  as  drug   therapies.       Behavioral  Therapies   These  therapists  believe  that  it  is  not  necessary  to  help  the  client  achieve  grand   insights  about  themselves.  The  therapist  doesn’t  care  if  the  behavior  comes  from  the   unconscious  or  from  another  source.  They  just  care  about  stopping  the  behavior.   Behavior  therapies  involve  the  application  of  the  principles  of  learning  and   conditioning  to  direct  efforts  to  change  client’s  maladaptive  behavior.  It  is  based  off   of  the  assumption  that  behavior  is  a  product  of  learning  and  that  what  has  been   learned  can  be  unlearned.     Joseph  Wolpe  is  a  major  figure  in  this  type  of  therapy.  He  came  up  with  systematic   desensitization.  This  is  a  behavior  therapy  in  which  the  therapist  attempts  to   reduce  a  client’s  phobic  response.  This  assumes  that  phobias  are  brought  on  by   classical  conditioning.  There  are  three  steps  to  systematic  desensitization:  build  the   client  an  anxiety  hierarchy,  give  the  client  training  in  deep  muscle  relaxation,  and   helping  the  client  work  through  the  hierarchy  while  learning  to  remain  relaxed  while   imaging  each  stimulus.  This  method  has  proved  to  be  effective.     Another  method  is  exposure  therapy.  In  this  therapy  the  client  is  exposed  to  the   situation  in  which  they  fear  so  they  can  be  shown  that  is  not  actually  harmful  to   them.  Usually  the  client  will  learn  that  the  situation  is  harmless,  and  the  fear  will  be   decreased.     Another  method  is  social  skills  training.  In  this  method  the  therapist  works  to   improve  the  client’s  interpersonal  skills  by  modeling,  behavioral  rehearsal,  and   shaping.  With  modeling,  the  client  watches  socially  skilled  friends  and  colleagues  so   that  they  can  develop  more  appropriate  responses  to  situations.    In  behavioral   rehearsal,  the  client  practices  more  socially  accepted  behaviors  in  role-­‐playing   exercises.  In  shaping,  clients  are  given  tasks  to  complete  starting  with  easy  things   like  making  friends.     Cognitive-­‐behavioral  treatments  use  verbal  interventions  as  well  as  behavior   modification  techniques  to  help  clients  change  maladaptive  patterns  of  thinking.   Aaron  Beck  came  up  with  one  of  these  treatments  called  cognitive  therapy.  This  type   of  therapy  uses  specific  strategies  to  correct  habitual  thinking  errors  that  underlie   various  types  of  disorders.  These  therapists  believe  that  depression  and  other   disorders  are  caused  by  errors  in  thinking.  They  say  that  people  blame  their   setbacks  on  personal  inadequacies,  focus  solely  on  negative  events,  make   pessimistic  projections  about  the  future,  and  think  negative  thoughts  about   themselves.  The  goal  of  this  therapy  is  to  change  the  client’s  negative  thoughts  about   themselves.     Behavioral  therapies  are  not  well  suited  to  some  types  of  problems,  but  for  the   problems  that  they  are  specifically  suited  for,  they  prove  to  be  very  effective.       Biomedical  Therapies   Biomedical  therapies  are  physiological  interventions  intended  to  reduce  the   symptoms  associated  with  psychological  disorders.  They  have  the  belief  that  these   disorders  are  caused  at  least  in  part  by  biological  malfunctions.       Drug  Treatments   There  are  four  major  groups  for  drugs  that  are  given  to  people  with  psychological   disorders.   • Antianxiety  drugs-­‐  reduces  tension,  apprehension,  and  nervousness.  The   most  popular  are  Valium  and  Xanax.  The  effects  of  these  drugs  start  almost   immediately  after  they’re  taken.  They  are  effective  but  only  for  shortly  after   the  drug  is  taken.  The  most  common  side  effects  are  drowsiness,   lightheadedness,  depression,  cottonmouth,  nausea,  and  constipation.     • Antipsychotic  drugs-­‐  mostly  used  in  the  treatment  of  schizophrenia.  They   gradually  reduce  psychotic  symptoms  like  hyperactivity,  mental  confusion,   hallucinations,  and  delusions.  Some  side  effects  include  drowsiness,   constipation,  tremors,  muscular  rigidity,  impaired  coordination,  and   cottonmouth.  They  can  also  cause  the  problem  of  tardive  dyskinesia.  This  is  a   neurological  disorder  that  is  marked  by  involuntary  writhing,  and  tic-­‐like   movements  of  the  mouth,  tongue,  face,  hands,  or  feet.     • Antidepressant  drugs-­‐  they  gradually  elevate  mood  and  help  bring  people   out  of  depression.  They  are  the  most  frequently  prescribed  drugs  for   disorders.  Some  of  these  drugs  are  Prozac,  Paxil,  and  Zoloft.  Side  effects   include  nausea,  dry  mouth,  drowsiness,  sexual  difficulties,  weight  gain,   feeling  emotionally  numb,  agitation,  and  increased  thoughts  of  suicide.     • Mood  stabilizers-­‐  these  drugs  are  used  to  control  mood  swings  in  patients   with  bipolar  mood  disorders.  Two  main  drugs  are  lithium  and  valproate.   They  have  been  shown  to  prevent  future  episodes  and  also  to  bring  patients   out  of  a  current  episode  they’re  having.  Lithium  can  be  toxic  if  the  levels  are   not  monitored.       Drug  therapies  have  proven  to  be  effective,  but  there  is  still  some  controversy   surrounding  them.  People  argue  that  the  drug  does  not  do  exactly  what  it  is   advertised  to  do.  People  also  argue  that  drugs  are  overprescribed  and  patients  are   overmedicated.  Some  also  believe  that  the  side  effects  from  the  drugs  are  often   worse  than  the  actual  disorder  itself.     Electroconvulsive  therapy  is  a  biomedical  treatment  in  which  electric  shock  is   used  to  produce  a  cortical  seizure  accompanied  by  convulsions.  The  basis  for  this   was  the  fact  that  epilepsy  and  schizophrenia  could  not  exist  in  the  same  body.  This  is   not  rare,  but  its  use  has  been  declining.  Some  critics  believe  that  it  is  still  overused.   Some  people  believe  that  this  method  is  very  effective,  but  relapse  rates  for  patients   who  receive  this  treatment  are  very  high.  Memory  loss,  impaired  attention,  and   other  cognitive  deficits  are  side  effects  to  this  treatment.       The  blended  treatment  approach  is  treating  one  client  with  multiple  therapies.   Eclecticism  involves  drawing  ideas  from  two  or  more  systems  of  therapy  rather  than   just  one  system.       A  mental  hospital  is  a  medical  institution  that  is  specialized  in  providing  inpatient   care  for  psychological  disorders.  Deinstitutionalization  is  the  transfer  of  the   treatment  of  the  mental  illness  from  inpatient  institutions  to  community-­‐based   facilities  that  have  outpatient  care.  The  main  reasons  for  this  are  the  emergences  of   effects  drug  therapies  have  for  severe  disorders  and  the  anticipated  deployment  of   community  mental  health  centers  to  coordinate  local  care.  People  are  still  placed   into  mental  hospitals,  but  there  has  been  a  shift  towards  placing  them  in  local   general  hospitals  rather  than  distant  psychiatric  hospitals.  The  goal  is  to  get  the   patient  stabilized  and  back  into  the  community  as  quickly  as  possible.  This  is  a   positive  thing  because  unnecessary  hospitalization  is  avoided,  but  it  is  a  negative   thing  because  sometimes  once  the  patient  is  released,  they  have  nowhere  to  go  and   have  not  been  trained  well  on  how  to  live  on  their  own.     There  is  problem  with  mental  illness  known  as  the  problem  of  the  revolving  door   and  the  homeless.  The  patient  will  stop  to  qualify  for  the  drugs  that  were  making   them  better  once  they  begin  to  be  stabilized.  They  will  be  sent  back  into  the   community  and  sometimes  the  community  will  not  have  the  correct  outpatient  care   that  they  need.  Their  condition  will  soon  come  back,  and  they  will  soon  have  to  be   readmitted.  Studies  have  also  shown  that  many  homeless  people  have  a  mental   illness.       Critical  Thinking  Application:  From  Crisis  to  Wellness-­‐  But  Was  It  the  Therapy?   • Clients  go  into  therapy  expecting  to  get  positive  results  from  it.     • Sometimes  it  is  hard  to  tell  is  the  person  gets  better  because  of  the  therapy  or   because  of  the  placebo  effect  or  because  of  regression  towards  the  mean.      


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.