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Week 1 Notes: HSTAA 212

by: Nicole Goodfliesh

Week 1 Notes: HSTAA 212 Hstaa 212

Marketplace > University of Washington > History > Hstaa 212 > Week 1 Notes HSTAA 212
Nicole Goodfliesh
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These notes include everything that Nathan covers in class. They also include a circled map of the places we have to know for the first quiz. Covers notes from the first Week (Lecture #1 and lectur...
Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts
Class Notes
history, military, America, USA, US History, us, nathan, HSTAA, 212, HSTAA212, hstaa 212, UW, University of Washington




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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Goodfliesh on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hstaa 212 at University of Washington taught by Nathan Roberts in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Military History of the United States in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
3/28/2016   Lecture  #1     Intro     History:  Is  it  “just  one  damn  thing  after  another?”   •   History  is  subjective   o   Based  on  what  people  choose  to  talk  about  and  what  they  don’t   o   Based  on  backgrounds  of  prior  historians   •   Facts:  Which  facts?  In  what  order?   •   The  choices,  interpretations,  sources,  questions  that  historians  use.   •   Significance:  What  do  the  facts  mean?   •   History  &  identity:  History  is  a  dynamic  process.   •   The  “how”  question.   •   Avoiding  inevitability,  seeking  “contingency.”     What  is  military  History?   When  is  military  history?  Colonialismà  Present  Day   Who  are  we  talking  about?  à  American  society,  policy  makers,  soldiers   War  &  Society   The  military  as  a  set  of  institutions   •   Organizational  structure,  institutional  culture   Militarization   •   Military  plane  flyovers  at  sports  games   •   Civilians  wearing  camo   •   Police  have  come  a  long  way  from  ‘protect  and  serve’   o   Wearing  camo  and  gear,  armored  vehicles     Week  1:  Encounters  (slides)  PART  1:  European  Traditions   Keywords   •   Christian  and  non-­‐Christian  “others”   •   Context   •   Colonization  of  Ireland   •   The  Hundred  Years  War   •   Pike   •   Large  Standing  Armies     Places   •   Iberian  Peninsula   •   Ireland   •   England   •   France   •   The  “Low  countries”  Tidewater  Virginia  (Netherlands  and   Belgium)   Concepts   •   The  development  of  European  military  cultures  their  movement  to  the  Americas     European  Traditions   1.   What  types  of  military  traditions  came  from  Europe  to  the  Americas?   2.   What  was  the  context  for  the  establishment  of  these  traditions?       Development  of  warrior  cultures  in  Europe:  (cultures  that  have  aspects  of  society  in  them  that   have  the  values  of  warriors)   •   Fighting  Christian  and  Non-­‐Christian  others   o   Feeling  that  people  are  so  different  from  you  that  they  are  just  “the  others’   •   Various  European  kingdoms/nation-­‐states  are  starting  to  engage  others     Political  disunity  and  invasion   •   Islamic  caliphates  moved  into  northern  Africa  and  Iberian  Peninsula  so  Spain  has  a  lot  of   Islamic  influence   •   1095  big  battle  near  the  pyranese  between  France  and  Spain   o   French  forces  defeated  a  larger  Islamic  force  and  that  was  the  end  of  expansion   of  Islam  into  Europe   o   Pope  calls  the  first  crusade  to  go  out  and  fight  against  infidels  (non-­‐Christians)   §   Crusades=  retaking  of  the  Iberian  Peninsula  c.1100-­‐c.1500   §   But,  not  just  to  retake  the  holy  land  from  Islamic  civilization:  Also  to  clean   up  Europe  and  get  the  trouble  causers  out  (those  with  no  job,  jailbirds,   etc.)   §   Hundreds  of  years  of  warfare  establishes  militarization  and  warrior   cultures     Reconquista/  Reconquest  of  the  Iberian  Peninsula   •   Comes  together  in  the  mid  15  century  (1400s)  (in  1469)   •   Cemented  with  the  marriage  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella   o   2  monarchs  from  different  parts  of  the  peninsula   o   Back  the  well-­‐travelled  Columbus  (Italian)  because:   §   They  wanted  money/gold   §   Want  to  convert  Christians       1492  End  of  the  Conquest   •   Expulsion  of  Muslims  and  Jews  from  Spain   o   Spain  is  becoming  unified  as  a  nation-­‐state   •   Columbus  to  the  New  World     15  C.  and  After:  The  rise  of  Nation  States   •   Nation:  A  people  with  common  interests,  culture   •   Nation-­‐  State:  A  governed  political  structure  that  unifies  a  nation     England  and  France  and  “The  Other”   •   1337-­‐1453  France  and  England:  Hundred  Years  War   o   Often  broken  down  into  smaller  wars   o   Over  the  “low  countries”   §   Netherlands  and  Belgium     Hundred  Years  War  (1337-­‐1453)   •   Military  Changes   o   Feudal  armies  à  Large  standing  armies   o   Professional  soldiers   o   Taxes!  Because  professional  soldiers=  need  money!   §   Problems  for  early  Americans  who  were  freaked  out  by  large  armies   (mostly  because  of  the  taxes)   •   Technological  changes   o   Heavy  Calvary  in  the  Battle  of  Crecy  (1346)  à  Infantry-­‐  based  armies  with   longbows  in  the  Battle  of  Agincourt  (1415)   o   Pikes/  Bowman  replaced  dependence  on  cavalries     England  and  Colonization  after  1500  (The  Push  Force)   •   England  in  the  16  and  17  centuries   o   Queen  Elizabeth  1  (1558-­‐1603),  King  James  1  (1603-­‐1625)   o   Parliament   §   House  of  Lords  (aristocracy  &  heredity)   §   House  of  Commons  (landed  gentry:  nobility  of  upper  class  who  owned   land)   o   80%  of  population  were  peasants   o   25%  of  men  held  enough  land  to  vote     §   House  of  Commons  only,  no  women  could  vote     Enclosures   •   Enclosed  estates  and  common  areas   o   Big  open  lands  started  to  become  enclosed  so  that  land-­‐owners  could  make   more  money  off  of  it   o   Before,  the  workers  would  be  able  to  keep  a  portion  of  the  land  to  do  whatever   they  wanted  and  the  land  owner  would  get  a  portion  of  what  they  made     o   Land-­‐  owners  get  a  bigger  income  from  their  land   •   Between  1530  and  1630  half  of  rural  peasants  lost  their  lands   •   The  “sturdy  poor”  in  cities   o   Go  to  the  cities  when  they  are  pushed  off  of  the  land.  Manchester,  etc.  were   seeing  an  influx  of  workers.  They  wanted  to  work  but  now  are  in  cities  with   nothing  to  do.  So,  policy  makers  have  to  deal  with  that.     •   AH  HA!  The  poor  and  landless  go  to  the  colonies   o   Policy  makers  decided  to  send  the  “sturdy  poor”  to  the  colonies  to  work  the   lands     West  Country  Men   •   Walter  Raleigh,  Sir  Francis  Duke  (Rich)   •   Thinking  the  plan  up  to  move  the  sturdy  poor  to  the  colonies   •   England  at  this  time  (who  more  or  less  loss  the  hundred  years  war)  is  kind  of  poor.  They   see  other  countries  getting  richer  but  they  are  getting  poorer     Richard  Hakluyt(s)  and  the  West  Country  Men   •   Apologists,  promoters  of  colonizing  other  places   •   Goals  of  Colonization   o   1.  To  plant  Christian  religion   o   2.  To  Trafficke  (trade)   o   3.  To  Conquer   §   They  know  they  will  meet  people  that  they  will  have  to  dominate     First  place  the  English  do  this:  Ireland   Colonization  of  Ireland   •   Taking  Irish  Catholic  lands  to  settle  with  Protestants  from  England  and  Scotland   •   New  penal  (punishment)  codes  specifically  for  Irish   •   Brutal  treatment  of  Irish  Catholics   •   After  protestant  reformation,  Catholicism  (seen  as  a  weird,  old  religion)  became  a   problem  for  the  non-­‐Catholics   •   Believe  they  are  going  to  use  the  Irish  lands  to  better  effect   •   Black  Legend:  The  Spanish  are  particularly  terrible  colonizers  but  we  the  British  are   going  to  do  it  much  better  because  we  are  awesome   o   However,  the  British  were  just  as  terrible  to  the  Irish   §   Heads  on  pikes  on  the  way  to  his  tent  so  if  the  Irish  wanted  to  talk  to  him,   they  would  have  to  walk  past  their  dead  friends     The  Chesapeake  (first  colony  that  failed)   •   Roanoke  Failure  (1587-­‐1589)   •   Roanoke:  first  American  colony  but  it  didn’t  survive   •   When  a  ship  returned  to  check  on  the  island,  it  was  bare     Jamestown  (1607)   •   Second  American  Colony   •   Set  up  on  a  tiny  river  in  VA   o   Terribly  insecure   §   Worried  about  Native  Americans  and  the  Spanish   •   The  English  hid  it  by  the  river  instead  of  putting  it  up  the  coast   •   There  was  a  triangular  stronghold  to  protect  themselves  from  attack   •   When  they  put  the  colony  down,  they  found  themselves  in  the  middle  of  a  Native   American  Confederacy  (led  by  fairly  powerful  group:  Powhatan),  so  the  Jamestown   people  had  to  deal  with  that     Summary  Part  1:   •   Europeans  brought  military  cultures  (traditions,  technologies)   o   Big  battles,  high  intensity,  death,  casualties   o   Pikes,  armor,  infantry  forces   •   Attitudes  about  both  Christian  and  non-­‐  Christian  others   o   Religious  devotion,  seeking  colonial  territories   •   Specific  ideas,  institutions   o   Militia     3/30/2016     Lecture  #2     Week  1:  Encounters  (slides)  PART  2:  North  American  Colonies     Keywords   •   Militia  system   •   Hybrid/  American  ways  of  war   •   Fear  of  standing  armies   •   Sooth-­‐bore  musket   •   Rangers  and  scouts   •   Indian  allies   •   Professional  soldiers  (Smith,  Standish,  etc.)   •   Total  War   •   King  Phillips’  (Metacom)  War   •   War  aims,  strategy,  tactics   Places   •   Lower  New  England   •   Spanish  Florida   Concepts   •   War  as  a  cultural  phenomenon   •   Militia  as  both  a  military  and  social  entity   •   Emergence  of  an  “American  way  of  war”               English  Colonies   •   The  militia:  social  organization  and  practice   o   Before  there  is  any  ‘army  of  VA”  or  ‘US  Army’  or  any  of  that,  there  is  a  reliance   on  a  militia     •   Fear  of  standing,  regular  armies   o   Fear  that  a  tyrant  might  get  control  of  the  army   o   Don’t  want  to  pay  taxes  (maintenance  of  the  army)   §   Wasn’t  until  WW2  that  we  became  used  to  shelling  out  large  sums  of   money  (taxes)  for  the  soldiers   •   Fears  of  Catholic  enemies  (Spain,  France)  and  Indians  (papist  enemies)   o   Scared  of  basically  everyone     English  colonial  militia  c.  1650  (picture  from  slide  show)   •   Militia  is  essentially  the  origins  of  the  national  guard   •   The  guy  in  the  front  is  a  professional  soldier   o   Ex.  Benjamin  church   •   Professional  soldier  came  over  to  train  the  militia   •   No  regular  uniform;  some  have  helmets     o   Leftover  armor  from  earlier  era   o   Some  still  have  swords   §   People  who  could  afford  them  most  likely   •   Matchlock  muskets,  powder  horn   •   Many  are  blacksmiths,  farmers,  herders  as  their  profession     •   Train  bands  were  the  groups  they  were  organized  into     Who  was  in  the  Militia?   •   Able-­‐bodied  men  16-­‐60  (60  would’ve  been  quite  old  in  this  time  period)   •   Exemptions   o   Wealthy  can  buy  their  way  out  of  serving  in  militia  or  can  pay  for  substitute   •   Compulsory  musters   o   Getting  everyone  together   •   “Companies”  or  “Trainbands”   o   Groups  of  people  that  drill  together  as  the  militia   •   When  they  got  together  to  train,  those  were  not  the  groups  that  went  out  to  fight   together  as  a  unit     o   They  drilled  together  but  when  they  went  out  to  fight,  it  was  whoever  was   around     Professional  Soldiers   •   John  Smith  in  VA   •   Myles  Standish  in  MA   o   Both  brought  their  training  over  from  England  to  train  the  militia  in  the  colonies     Christian  Soldiers   •   “Hence  it  is  in  no  ways  unbecoming  a  Christian  to  learn  to  be  a  soldier.”   •   Protestants  that  exist  within  the  church  of  England;  look  down  on  the  Catholics  (as  a   papist  enemy)   •   Being  a  soldier  was,  “a  Credit,  a  praise  and  a  glory.”  –   Chaplain  Samuel  Norwell  Ma  c.  1660s   o   Had  a  point  of  conflict  as  a  Christian  because  they  have  to  kill  people   §   They  need  to  be  able  to  justify  taking  someone’s  life   §   But  they  concluded  there  was  no  conflict  because  they  were   “instruments  of  god”  so  they  saw  their  own  enemies  as  enemies  of  god   §   They  define  their  enemies  in  different  terms   •   Natives  are  savages/heathens  because  they  don’t  have  a  Christian   god  that  they  pray  to     Southern  Territories   •   Spanish  Florida  tried  to  destabilize  the  colonies  because  they  offered  land  to  slaves  that   ran  away  from  Carolina  colonies   •   Competing  over  fur  trade     •   Carolina  colonies  competing  with  Spanish  FL  and  LA  over  deer  trade   •   Security  concerns  that  English  colonials  have     Social  life  of  a  militia  (1600s)   •   Political  and  military  officeholding   o   Whether  you  had  military  training  or  not,  you  might  be  an  officer   •   Class  status   o   Most  of  militia  was  made  up  of  the  working  class   •   Localized   o   Protective  over  their  own  militias   §   If  they  sent  their  militia  off  to  another  colony,  they  believed  they  might   get  attacked   •   Governor’s  authority   o   Not  yet  under  legislative  authority     How  were  they  equipped?   •   Matchlock  Musket,  c.  1550s-­‐1700s     o   Not  terribly  effective   o   Very  heavy   o   Slow  rate  of  fire   o   Sits  on  a  pole  for  stabilization     o   Depends  on  a  burning  match   •   Later  replaced  by  the  Flintlock  musket   o   Doesn’t  depend  on  a  burning  match   §   Has  a  chunk  of  steel  and  some  flint,  which  flies  forward  against  the  steel   and  ignites  the  powder     English  Weaponry   •   Pikes  and  armor   o   Of  little  use  in  an  American  context  against  non-­‐European  foes   o   Didn’t  match  the  context  to  wear  armor  because  of  the  heat  and  their  enemies   did  not  have  armor  or  weapons  that  you  would  need  armor  for  (for  a  while)     Culture   •   Ways  in  which  certain  cultures  wage  war  is  different   •   “Culture  is  one  of  the  two  or  three  most  complicated  words  in  the  English  language.”   (Raymond  Williams  1983)   o   Highculture  (listen  to  Beethoven)   o   Agriculture  (Farm  in  different  ways)   o   Culture  in  a  lab  (Petri  dish)   •   For  our  purposes:  The  ideas,  attitudes,  customs,  and  beliefs  that  are  held  and  projected   by  a  specific  group  of  people.  People  transmit  culture  through  language,  material   objects,  institutions,  art,  ritual.   o   Not  the  same  for  Europeans  and  Eastern  woodland  native  people     Native  Tactics  (Eastern  woodland  native  people)   •   Fought  other  native  people  before  the  British  ever  showed  up   o   Better  knowledge  of  the  land/  topography   o   Europeans  had  gotten  used  to  big  large  scale  warfare  and  wanted  to  kill  people   but  Eastern  Native  Americans  were  used  to  low-­‐intensity  and  humiliation,   control  (small  raids  to  grab  stuff  they  need;  did  not  tend  towards  killing)   o   Natives  had  a  different  feeling  towards  death   §   Saw  it  as  a  spiritual  thing   §   Spiritual  world  was  all  around  them  and  many  believed  that  Shamans   could  interact  with  the  spirits  and  could  kill  people  so  if  someone  died   they  would  be  like  ‘who  did  this?’   §   If  someone  died,  they  might  go  to  the  next  village  and  take  someone  as  a   replacement  for  them  like  a  familial  slave  (a.k.a.  covering  the  dead)   o   Natives  Focused  on  humiliating  the  enemy  and  driving  them  from  the  field  of  the   battle   o   Natives  Wanted  to  capture  slaves     Allies  and  Enemies     •   Indians  acted  as  both  allies  and  enemies   o   English  used  them  to  know  the  landscape  and  to  know  who  was  an  enemy  tribe   and  who  was  a  friendly  tribe  because  the  colonials  did  not  know  the  landscape   o   Some  became  allies  because  of  trade   §   Beaver  furs  were  very  valuable  because  of  the  European  and  Chinese   fashion  of  the  beaver  hat   •   John  Smith  and  Pocahontas   •   Indians  as  shrewd  traders   •   Knowledge,  tactics,  food,  clothing,  allies     The  Stronghold  Concept   •   Garrisons,  blockhouses,  stockades   o   If  there  was  an  attack,  they  could  hold  up  inside  there  and  wait  for  the  attackers   to  go  away   •   Strengths?   o   Shoot  their  bows  from  inside  the  stronghold  at  the  enemies   •   Weaknesses?   o   Can  be  easily  burnt  down   o   Open  to  a  siege   §   Keep  supplies  from  getting  in   o   Too  small  to  grow  crops   §   Whatever  food  you  have  in  there  is  what  you  have   o   Not  very  many  options  if  the  enemy  hangs  around  for  a  while   o   Takes  resources  and  time  to  build   o   Hard  to  be  sanitary   o   Sickness  can  spread  quickly     Changes  to  the  militia  system  (around  1700s)   •   By  1700  becoming  honorary,  privilege  (in  the  East)   o   Cities  on  the  coast  are  starting  to  grow  and  new  towns  on  the  west  are  popping   up   o   Growing  economy   •   Voluntary,  ceremonial  militias   •   Who  is  in  control?   o   General  assemblies  are  starting  to  control  the  militias     §   People’s  representatives   §   Controlling  money  to  be  able  to  buy  new  weapons  and  such   §   Held  the  legal  contracts   •   West  vs.  East   o   East  militia  became  honorary  (cool  to  be  high  up  in  militia)   §   Social  Society   o   West  militia  needs  to  take  it  seriously  because  the  natives  do  not  like  them   encroaching  on  their  lands   •   On  the  west   o   New  ad  hoc  (on  the  spot)  companies   §   Sparsely  populated   o   “Scouts”  and  “rangers”  (5-­‐10guys)   §   people  who  are  patrolling  the  frontier   §   borders  looking  for  slaves   §   looking  for  Indian  attacks   §   Seeing  if  the  Spanish  are  coming   o   legal  contracts  &  British  army  insults   §   if  you  are  in  the  militia,  you  are  in  a  binding  agreement  with  the  colonies   and  if  they  break  the  contract,  you  can  just  leave   •   if  they  don’t  provide  enough  food   •   if  they  ask  you  to  go  out  too  far  away  in  the  field   §   British  who  come  over  find  this  absurd  because  they  come  from  long-­‐ standing  armies  with  loyalty  so  they  insult  that  the  militias  have  no  sense   of  loyalty,  duty,  or  honor     1750s  VA  militia   •   Lots  of  poor  people   •   Criminals     •   People  without  land   th •   Militia  is  becoming  by  the  mid  18  century  (at  least  in  VA):   o   Seen  as  a  mobilizing  force   o   Rag  tag  mix  of  people  that  don’t  belong  in  society     §   Because  the  upper  class  wants  to  organize  society  by  giving  people  a   purpose  that  didn’t  have  one  before   o   Alien  from  the  British  origins     Summary  Part  2:   •   Changes  to  the  militia  system:  social,  practical   •   Adapting  to  the  American  Context   o   Indians  and  new  environments       Week  1:  Encounters  (slides)  PART  3:  Rebellion  and  War  (still  Lecture  #2)     Terms  to  know   War  aims:  purposes  for  which  the  war  is  fought   Strategy:  general  concept  for  the  use  of  force   Tactics:  actions  of  troops,  units  (movement  of  units/  troops  on  the  battlefield)     European  encroachment   •   Indians’  trading  partners   o   Both  English  and  French  wanted  Indians  as  trading  partner   §   Mostly  when  beaver  fur  was  a  big  thing   §   Natives  would  do  the  work   o   Natives  traded  furs  for  pots  and  pans  and  metals  and  things  like  that     •   Concepts:  ownership  and  usufruct  rights   o   Lots  of  confusion  over  who  had  rights  to  the  land   o   Enclosure  laws  in  England:  if  you  enclose  a  property,  it’s  yours   o   Native  people  ‘used’  the  land,  they  did  not  ‘take’  the  land  so  when  English   people  asked  the  Natives  for  some  land,  the  natives  thought  they  meant  to   ‘use’/borrow  it  so  when  they  came  back  the  next  year  to  hunt,  they  were  mad   that  the  English  didn’t  let  them  use  it     •   Encroachment  and  backlash   o   Especially  true  after  1650  when  more  and  more  English  were  coming  over   o   More  taking  of  resources,  etc.     •   Advantages   o   Natives   §   Natives  knew  the  land  and  had  tactics  that  were  better  for  the  landscape   §   Native  men  had  grown  up  as  hunters  as  a  form  of  getting  food  so  for   them,  using  a  bow/arrow  and  a  gun  came  naturally  to  them  but  this  was   not  true  for  Englishmen  (some  did,  but  most  were  farmers  or  blacksmiths   or  another  profession  that  did  not  need  weapons)   §   Natives  naturally  had  good  aim  because  of  how  they  grew  up   o   English       §   Had  more  gunpowder  and  guns  because  they  could  manufacture  it  easier     •   Disadvantages   o   Natives   o   English     •   Disease   o   Europeans  brought  tons  of  deadly  diseases   §   Typhoid,  tuberculosis     o   Africans  brought  malaria   o   Native  people  had  no  resistance  to  them  and  mortality  was  around  30%  and   some  has  high  as  90%   o   Helped  Europeans  because  lots  of  Natives  died  off     Powhatan   •   Tidewater,  VA     o   Surrounded  by  large  number  of  native  people  that  are  part  of  the  Powhatan   confederacy   o   Uneasy  peace  develops  as  more  English  are  coming  over  and  wanting  lands  (all   land  in  England  was  taken  up  so  they  would  go  and  take  land  and  grow  food  and   trade  with  the  carribean  to  get  rich)  so  that  develops  into  a  few  wars:   •   First  Tidewater  War  (1622-­‐1632)   o   Ended  by  a  peace  treaty  that  basically  set  up  for  the  second  tidewater  war   o   Powhatan  attack  killed  25%  of  VA  colony   •   Second  Tidewater  War  (1644-­‐1646)   o   When  Powhatan  was  defeated,  the  power  of  the  colonies  increased     Lower  new  England  (1637)   •   The  Pequot  war   o   Pequot  tribe  was  most  powerful  in  region  in  early  part  of  1600s   o   Plymouth  colonies  started  to  worry  about  this   §   Afraid  the  natives  were  becoming  more  demanding  about  trade  goods   §   Less  open  about  being  converted  to  Christians     §   Not  open  to  give  up  land   §   Convinced  that  if  they  could  defeat  the  Pequots,  they  would  have  more   power   •   Went  to  the  mystic  river  fort  and  attacked  it  preemptively  to   reduce  their  power     Mystic  River  and  Total  War   •   A  total  war  came  out  of  this:  the  colonies  and  the  allies  made  war  against  non-­‐ combatants   o   John  Mason  (CT)  and  John  Underhill  (MA)   o   Found  women  and  children  and  slaughtered  them  anyways   o   Set  out  with  Mohegan  allies  and  Narraganset   o   Set  fire  to  huts  where  natives  were  staying  in  the  early  morning  and  about  400-­‐ 500  Pequots  were  killed  this  way   •   Pequots  who  fled  joined  other  Pequot  bands   o   Some  got  away  and  some  were  captured  and  turned  into  slaves     •   The  natives  felt  European  warfare  was  too  harsh   o   Especially  the  killing  of  women  and  children   •   Power  of  Pequots  is  reduced  and  the  Narraganset  became  the  most  powerful  in  the   region   •   Wampanoag  allies       Uneasy  Peace  (1636-­‐1675)   •   People  are  still  dying   •   Boat  captain  body  turns  up  in  a  river   o   Narragansets  said  they  might  know  who  killed  but  wouldn’t  tell  Plymouths   •   Plymouths  are  ready  to  go  to  war     King  Phillip’s  (Metacom)  War  (1675)   •   More  and  more  English  coming  over   •   Plymouth  growing  in  size   •   Pressure  on  natives  because  of  diseases  and  taking  of  land   •   King  Phillip  was  the  name  given  to  the  guy  who  was  the  son  of  the  peg  man  named   Massasoit  who  had  made  the  original  treaty  with  the  colony  that  made  the  peace  b/w   Plymouths  ad  Wampanoags       •   War  to  go  after  English  settlements   •   Wampanoags  and  Nipmucks  got  together  to  go  against  English   •   Plymouth  got  together  with  CT,  RI   •   What  started  war:  atrocities  on  both  sides   o   Attacks  on  villages     o   Killed  whoever  they  found   o   Colonies  did  the  same  thing   §   Sometimes  they  accidentally  killed  allies  because  they  couldn’t  tell  them   apart   •   Cost  100,000  pounds;  6%  of  colonial  population  died   •   Lower  new  England  Indians  dispersed,  moved  to  colonial  towns,  converted,  moved  west     Great  Swamp  fight   •   Biggest  battle  from  Phillip’s  war   •   Colonists  lead  by  Benjamin  Church     •   What  developed  out  of  this:  American  way  of  war   o   No  longer  with  the  great  swamp  fight  did  colonizers  behave  as  if  they  had  just   come  from  England   §   Not  lined  up  in  huge  armies  to  march  up  to  the  fort  and  attack     §   Colonists  adopted  native  tactics   •   Hybrid  war   o   Still  using  European  guns  and  swords  and  hatchets   o   Still  being  organized  in  European  waves   o   But,  style  of  fighting  more  like  native  style   •   Total  war  approach   o   25%  die  of  lower  new  England     Militia  and  Domestic  Policing   •   Militia  acted  as  a  police  force  on  top  of  being  an  expeditionary  force   •   Beacon’s  rebellion,  VA  1676   o   Nathanial  Beacon  came  to  VA  from  England  to  improve  his  status  but  when  he   came,  the  VA  governor  (William  Berkely)  and  friends  had  the  best  land  already   and  had  made  agreements  with  the  Natives  to  not  take  anymore  land  so  he  had   little  option  to  improve  his  wealth   o   He  went  around  talking  about  the  inequity   o   Attempted  to  take  away  the  power  of  the  governor  to  open  the  lands   o   He  went  after  the  Indians  even  though  some  were  the  allies  to  the  colonizers   •   Stono  Rebellion,  S.  Carolina  (1739)   o   Slave  rebellion   §   Largest  slave  uprising  in  the  main  British  colonies   o   Large  number  of  slaves  from  the  same  region  of  Africa  around  Congo  had  shown   up  in  S.  Carolina  together   §   Until  now,  people  from  same  parts  of  Africa  didn’t  come  together  so   couldn’t  plot  together   o   Plotted  together  to  try  and  get  out  of  the  S  Carolina  colony   o   Lots  were  murdered     o   Carolina  militia  called  upon  to  bring  back  the  slaves  who  were  then  sold  into  the   Caribbean  to  work  on  a  sugar  plantation   •   Regulator  Uprising,  N.  Carolina  (1771)     Summary   •   Europeans  and  Indians:   o   1.  Native  allies   o   2.  Disease   o   3.  Desire   o   4.  Tech   •   Militia  system  was  diverse,  required  adjustment   •   Volunteer  armies,  short-­‐term  commitments,  contracts   •   Emergence  of  hybrid  American  practices    


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