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sociology CH. 9 notes

by: Cheyenne Harding

sociology CH. 9 notes soc 140 A

Cheyenne Harding

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these notes are over all of chapter 9
Intro to Sociology
Dr. Zollinger
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne Harding on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soc 140 A at Fort Hays State University taught by Dr. Zollinger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Fort Hays State University.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Sociology Chapter 9 Global Stratification  Systems of Social Stratification- Slavery  Causes - Debt - Crime - War  Conditions - Temporary - Not necessarily: inheritable, powerless, poor  Bonded labor (indentured servitude) in the New World  Slavery in the New World-imported and owned  Slavery today-real but hidden  South Africa - Europeans of Dutch descent used to control the government, the police, and the military; apartheid system until early 1900s  U.S. Racial Caste System - From the moment of birth, race marked everyone for life  India’s Religious Castes  Systems of Social Stratification- Estate  Three Estates in Medieval European - Nobility - Clergy - Serfs  Women in the Estate System - Inferior to men within strata  Systems of Social Stratification- Class  Class System  Based on Money and Material Possessions  Relatively Fluid  Social Mobility - Income- the flow of money to a social actor - Wealth- assets- house, apartments, oil well, plot land with trees on it  Systems of social Stratification- other  Global stratification and the status of women - Gender is a basis for social stratification  The global superclass - Growing interconnections among the world’s wealthiest people produce a global superclass  Determinants of Social Class  The means of production  Bourgeoisie  Proletariat  Class consciousness  False class consciousness (e.g. hard work is valiant and rewarded in itself; we must have our rich)  Determinants of Social class  Karl Marx - The means of production - Bourgeoisie - Proletariat - Class consciousness - False class consciousness (e.g. hard work is valiant and rewarded in itself; we must have our rich)  Max Weber: Property, power, & Prestige  Why is social stratification universal? Functionalist view  Davis and Moore’s Explanation - Society must make sure positions are filled - Some positions more important than others - Important positions be filled with those qualified - To motivate qualified people, they must be rewarded  Tumin’s Critique of Davis and Moore - How do we know what positions most important? - Stratification should=meritocracy - It ought to benefit everyone  Mosca’s Argument - No society can exist unless organized - Leadership requires inequalities of power - Human nature is self-centered - Functionalist explanation is ideology of elite - Class consciousness will overcome blinding ideology  Current applications of conflict theory - Power relations among nations, how national elites control their workers < and how power shifts as capital is shuffled among nations  Lenski’s Synthesis - Hunting and gathering societies extra resources went to the warriors to protect the group - With surpluses the game to establish and keep control of surpluses began  How do Elites Maintain Stratification?  Soft control Vs. force - Controlling people’s ideas - Controlling information - Stifling criticism - For a literary painting of this picture. Read George Orwell’s short book, 1984  Comparative Social Stratification  Social Stratification in Great Britain - Great Britain has a class system that can be divided into lower, middle, and upper classes - Education is the primary way by which the British perpetuate their class system  Social stratification in former Soviet Union - Rank in the communist party  Global Stratification: Three Words  The most industrialized  The industrializing nations  The least industrialized nations  Modifying the model - Oil-rich nations of the middle east - Kuwait is an excellent example  How did world’s nations become stratified?  Colonialism - Use of raw power to subjugate people who lived in areas desired by colonial powers for the natural resources available (precious metals, diamonds, spices, etc.)  World system theory - The globalization of capitalism - Move away from raw use of power to extract resources from periphery - Through trade, resources still flowed from periphery to the core, where industrial production now underway  Culture of poverty - Cultural beliefs and practices avoid risk and innovation, which explains least industrialized tendency to be agrarian or laborers in resource extraction  Evaluating the theories - Most sociologists prefer colonialism and world system theory as original cause explanations, while a culture of poverty among the impoverished contributes to continued patterns of behavior stifling social mobility.  Maintaining Global Stratification  Neocolonialism - Post WWI; most industrialized nations sell goods (both finished goods and grains) to least industrialized nations, making the LINs continuously indebted. Being indebted means potential wealth created an LIN instead services debt to the MINs  Multinational Corporations - Buying political stability: cooperative power elites in charge of government in LINs created favorable tax, resources access, cheap labor - Unanticipated consequences: increasing stratification with the LIN  Strains in the global system  It is never easy to maintain global stratification  Stream of unanticipated events - Governments of China and India are making cheap labor available, and this is producing massive amounts of exported items. Resulting cash flow into the countries being put toward modernizing infrastructure of country  Contradictions Rear up - Exploited groups “act up” at times; may lead to revolutionary change that capitalists and MINs find uncooperative


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