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Biology 102 Notes, Week 11

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Notes, Week 11 BIOL102

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These are the notes for the week of 3/29-3/31, beginning with Phylum Cnidaria all the way to Phylum Arthropoda.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102, phylum
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Bio 102 Notes, Week 11 - Phylum Cnidaria o Hydra o Jellies o Anemones o Corals o Characteristics § Radial symmetry (many planes of division means equal halves) § Allows them to meet their environment equally § Two basic body forms • Medusa o Jelly stage, bell shape • Polyp o Coral § Simple in structure, don’t move past the gastrula stage § Two tissues layers, ecto and endo, no meso § Incomplete gut with one opening • Gastrovascular cavity § Tentacles with stinging cells (cnidocytes) which contain nematocyst • Nerve net – simple nervous system • Contractile fibers o The Portugese man of war is a colony of polyps, not a jelly - Evolution of bilateral symmetry o Phylum Platyheminthes: flat worms § Free living or parasitic (flat worms, tapeworms, flukes) § Flatworm characteristics • Bilateral symmetry o Some degree of cephalization • Protostomes o Incomplete gut o Acoelomates o 3 tissue germ layers, so they have organs • Organ level of characterization o Nervous system with cephalization o Reproductive organs (hermaphrodites) o Excretory system (flame cells) o Tapeworms § Two hosts complete life cycle § Cephalization lost (suckers) o Parasitic Flukes § Complicated life cycle § Blood fluke – water with snails and sewage § Liver fluke – uncooked fish § Lung fluke – uncooked or undercooked fluke - Protostomes with a pseudocoelom o Phylum Nematoda: Round worms § Small in size § Complete gut with mouth and anus but surrounded by a false body cavity § Rely on diffusion for exchange § Free living or parasitic § Cuticle/molt or shed like insects § Longitudinal muscles § Hookworms, pinworms, trichinosis, elephantiasis - Protostome Coelomates o Mollusks, annelids, arthropods o Membranes: give more stability § Elaboration of internal organs • Respiratory and circulatory systems § Freer body movement § Can get larger in size o Phylum Mollusca § Most marine, some freshwater, some terrestrial § All mollusks have a similar body plan • Visceral mass: the major systems • Foot: locomotion, attachment, or food capture • Mantle: a membrane covers mass, secretes shells or gill formation • Radula: can be modified, an organ bears rows of teeth, like a conveyor belt § Gastropods • Snails, nudibranchs • Notable cephalization • Some drill like radula § Bivalves • Clams, oysters • Anything with two shells • No head, and no radula, they filter feed • Foot used for burrowing § Cephalopods • Squids, octopuses, cuttlefish • Modified foot, 8 tentacles with suckers • Jet propulsion via mantle cavity • Shell is lost in most or reduced to an internal pen • Powerful beak (radula) • Brain well developed • Complex eyes - Development of Segmentation o Phylum Annelida – the segmented worms § “Little rings” § Pronounced segmentation leads to specialization § 3 groups • 1) Oligocheates o Terrestrial earthworms • 2) Polychaete o Some with really specialized segments • 3) Leeches o Engorge themselves while feeding § Other annelid characteristics • Simple brain • More specialized digestive system • Closed circulatory system • Excretory system – nephridia • Hermaphrodites o Phylum Arthropoda § “Jointed foot” animals § Over 1 billion of the two billion animals § Evolved from polychaetes § Characteristics • Jointed appendages • Segmented with fusion o Head, thorax, abdomen o Specialized appendages • Exoskeleton of chitin o Protects and aids in locomotion o Does not expand § Molts to allow growth § Features • Reproduce rapidly so they adapt quickly • Some exhibit metamorphosis • Organ systems o Brain with sensory organs § Eyes § Antennae o Open circulatory system § 1) Chelicerates (special mouth parts) • horseshoe crabs § 2) Crustaceans (most are marine) • calcified exoskeleton


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