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Chapter outline notes

by: Desiree Notetaker

Chapter outline notes History 110a

Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77

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Iran and India
World Civilizations
Class Notes
Iran, India, Buddhism
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110a at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
IRAN, INDIA AND TRADE  Mauryan Empire declined  India breaking up  Seleucids held sway in region  Parthian Empire: Persian tribe, the Parni. Restored Persia as a power in Middle East. Defeated  the Seleucids and their successors, the Romans  Sassanian Empire: rose after, around 224 CE.  Kushan Empire: rose to power in Central Asia. Provided extended trade routes into Silk Road  that linked the East and West. Receded in Northern India  Gupta Dynasty: seized power in northeast. Under Chandragupta.  New Persian Empires  Under Arsaces I, Mithradates I and their successors, emerged and conquered Persia and  Mesopotamia. Adopted horseback fighting techniques and added a new tactic, the Parthian shot,  which was faking a retreat but suddenly fire their arrows.  Battle of Carrhae – in 53 BCE southeast Turkey. Parthian general Serena defeated a Roman army Parthia’s conquests was to the east, extended from Mesopotamia to the western shore of Aral  Sea. Commercial relations with China began in 121 BCE –Han emperor sent representatives to  Mithradates II.  Empire remained loosely organized conglomeration of petty kingdoms. Parthian and Sassanian  favored Zoroastrianism. Mahayana Buddhism was prevalent in eastern parts.  Revolt later occurred, leading to the uprising of the Sassanian Dynasty under Ardashir I. This  period witnessed greatest extension of Persian power. Pursued a clear policy of expansion in  west and east. The empire incorporated northern Egypt, Syria, Yemen and the entire Persian  Gulf. The ambition of expansion weakened the empire. The Shahanshah Khosru II was defeated  by the Byzantines in 627 at Nineveh.  Sassanians created a more unified and tightly administered empire than Parthians.  Zoroastrianism became the official religion. Commerce and high culture thrived. Persian cities  became rivals of China due to manufacturing of luxury items. Artisans were organized into  guilds.  Khosru I and his successors built ports, roads, bridges, and caravanserais to encourage trade.  Kushan Empire  Warlike and pastoralist people. Dominated Asia including Iran, India and China for centuries.  Around 200 BCE, the Xiongnu drove them from their Turkistan homelands and eventually  arrived in the region of Bactria between 165 and 128 BCE. From there, the Kushan decided to  expand.  Kanishka the Great: helped expansion of Buddhism and long­distance trade. Minted gold  coins, on which he placed images of the Buddha, a monk, and the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara  (developed as a kind of savior to travelers and seafarers; appeared everywhere trade and  Buddhism spread).  Fourth Buddhist Council – settled important doctrinal issues.  Gupta Dynasty  In 320, India experienced a great rebirth of Hindu culture. Vedic Hindu religious belief replaced  Buddhism. The invasion of Muslim Turks divided India into political fragments but the unity of  Hindu civilization carried on.  Fa Xian: Buddhist monk. Traveled the Silk Road seeking manuscripts and opportunities to  debate the birthplace of Buddha himself. Had a diary describing India as a stable society.  Throughout Gupta period, India remained free from problems of insufficient land and  overpopulation. Rice was chief crop. Arts flourished.  Kalidasa: ancient India playwright. Wrote a series of works that remain popular today.  Contributor to unpsurge of Sanskrit literature.  Politcal Fragmentation  South – Hinduism and Buddhism. Languages came from Dravidian and Pali families. Theravada  Buddhism became dominant. Both religions encouraged the construction of stupas –rounded  temples. Ajanta Caves: some paintings that survived. Portray gods good and bad.  North – Islam comes to India. Had raids of invaders. Between 1001 and 1030, Afghanistan  Mahmud al­Ghazni launched raids. Beginning in 1192, Muslim commanders made their  headquarters in city of Delhi, capital of Delhi sultanate. Muslim conquests brought a decline in  Buddism  Hindu doctrines  Stem from three written sources: The Vedas (four lengthy poems), Upanishads (series of  philosophical speculations), and the Mahabharata (world’s longest poem)s Brahman – spirit world; source of all life.  Hindus are subdivided into two categories of devotees  1) Vishnu – the Preserver, Christ figure without ethical teachings. He/she appeared in nine  incarnations. Beloved in the form of Kirshna.  2) Shiva – the Destroyer and Creator. Lord of both life and death


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