Chapter 10 Tests of Assessment
Chapter 10 Tests of Assessment PSY 3400
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Pulcher-Coard on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3400 at North Carolina Central University taught by Dr. George Cliette in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psychological Measurement in Psychlogy at North Carolina Central University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psych Measurement Tests of Intelligence Chapter 10 ~Some considerations which may make a test more appealing to a potential administrator of the test: theory on which the test was based how easily the test can be administered how easily the test can be scored how easily test results can be interpreted the test’s utility adequacy/appropriateness of the test norms Reliability and validity indices ~Characteristics of the Stanford Binet Tests (there are a total of V variations of the test): First tests lacked proper representation of the population in the sample size tested to create norms for the test (created racial and gender biases) st 1 intel test to provide organized/detailed administration and scoring instructions 1 test to introduce the alternate item – an item used under certain circumstances (Ex. if a question is improperly administrated, like when a teacher answer the question in asking it, then an alternate item of equal difficulty is given)(also accommodates special needs in some cases) Age scale – test w/items organized by the age at which most testtakers are believed capable of responding in the way keyed correct Deviation IQ (Test Composite) – index of intel. derived from the comparison b/w the performance of an individ testtaker and the performance of other testtakers of the same age in the standardization sample Ratio IQ – a function of the testtakers mental age (as determined by the test), divided by their chronological age (in yrs), multiplied by 100 Ratio IQ = ((mental age) / (chronological age)) * 100 Point Scale – test organized into subsets by the category of the items th SB4 (Stanford Binet 4 edition) / SB5 use the point scale; SB13 use the age scale described below Characteristics of the SB5: Created for admin to ppl b/w ages 2 and 85 Based on the CattellHornCarroll theory of intellectual abilities (measures fluid intel, crystallized intel, quantitative knowledge, visual processing, and shortterm memory) Standardization of the SB5: this version of the SB used a sample of 4800 subjects from the US which the 2000 census dubbed as representative of the US population Psychometric Soundness of the SB5: internalconsistency reliability coefficient (.97.98) and testretest reliability coefficients were high (.74.97); concurrent and predictive contentrel8’d validity were high as well (predictive content validity was measured against the WIAS and Woodcock Johnson III) Test Administration of the SB5: Adaptive Testing – (computerized items in the first subset of the test) testing individually tailored to the testtaker (test being w/an item of middle difficulty, if answered incorrectly, an easier test question is given, if answered correctly and item of greater difficulty is given) The next subset in the SB5 uses a routing test – a task used to route the testtaker to a particular level of questions (those test items that have a high probability of being at an optimal level of difficulty for that particular testtaker) Teaching Items – (at the beginning of most test subsets) designed to illustrate the task required and assure the examiner that the testtaker understands the questions (Ex. when taking the SAT or state tests, these are the sample questions that are in the booklet that you answer with the person giving you the test before the actual timed test begins) Floor – (floor level test item) lowest difficulty level of items on the subset which, if answered incorrectly, would show that the testtaker has absolutely no mastery of the subset being tested Ceiling – (ceiling level test item) highest difficulty level of items on a subset (which, if answered correctly, demonstr8 the testtaker has the highest level of mastery tested in that subset) Basal Level – (basal level test item) baselevel criterion which must be met before testing in the subset to continue (if the item is answered incorrectly, the test will either end or easier level questions will be given to the testtaker) ~Characteristics of the Weschler Tests: Weschler Tests – point scale intel tests which assess the intellectual abilities of ppl in preschool, adulthood, and as children Assessed in comparison with the score of other ppl within the same age group The first three Weshler tests measured Full Scale IQ (measure of general intel), Performance IQ and Verbal IQ 4 edition Weschler test began measuring only Verbal and Perfomance IQ’s st WB I (1 Weschler Scale) – used to measure the intel of multilingual, multinational, and multicultural employees of the Bellevue Hospital Standardization sample was restricted; some subsets of the test lacked sufficient interitem reliability; scoring criteria were sometimes too ambiguous WIAS IV – (Weschler Adult Intel Scale) most recent; made of two subtest categories, core and supplemental subtests Core Subtests – administered to obtain a composite score Supplemental Subtest – (optional subtest) used for purposes such as providing additional clinical info or extending the number of abilities/processes sampled Supplemental Subtests may be used in place of core tests if: A core subtest is incorrectly administered The testtaker had be inappropriately exposed to the core subtest The testtaker has a physical limitation which would hinder their performance on a core subtest Improvements on the WAIS IV as opposed to the earlier versions: Explicit admin instructions Use of sample items Enlargement of images on the test Rule of not administering subtests which test shortterm memory, hand eye coordination, and motor speed for ppl over 69 yrs old Reduction of test administration time (from 80 to 67 minutes) Measures four indices (categories) of scores: Verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual reasoning, processing speed GIA (General Ability Index) can also be derived from the test results of the WIAS IV (using postmarket tables using measures of the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning indices) WISC IV – (Weschler Intel Scale for Children) Process Scores can also be derived from test results on the WIAS IV Process Score an index designed to help understand the way the testtaker processes various kinds of info Based on the premises that cognitive functions are interrel8’d, so it’s nearly impossible to obtain a pure measurement of any given function Measures Full Scale IQ, verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed WPPSI III – (Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intel) – tests children from 2 to 6 yrs old 1 test to adequately sample the total population of the US, including racial minorities Obtains 3 composite scores: Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and Full Scale IQ ~Short Forms – alternate forms of tests created to reduce the time needed for administration, test taking, and the scoring and interpretation of test scores. based on the low validity of these tests, most short form tests are used for screening purposes only, not placement purposes WASI – (Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intel) used to measure testtakers from age 6 to age 89; has 4 subtests (matrix reasoning, block design, similarities, and vocabulary); measures Full Scale IQ, performance IQ, and verbal IQ ~Army Alpha Tests – intel and ability test develp’d by military psychologists for use in WWI to screen literate recruits ~Army Beta Test – nonverbal intel and ability test develp’d by military psych’s during WWI to screen for illiterate and foreignborn recruits ~Screening Tool – an instrument or procedure used to ID a particular tr8 at an imprecise level (tests does it exist or not; does not test the extent to which it exists) ~Convergent Thinking – deductive reasoning process that entails recall and consideration of facts as well as a series of logical judgments to narrow down solutions and arrive at one solution (Ex. process of elimination) ~Divergent Thinking – reasoning process in which thought it free to move in many diff directions, allowing for several possible solutions (induced by open ended questions)
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