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by: diamond tirado

Chapter9Notes1.pdf 225

diamond tirado
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Chapter 9 Notes, Test Tuesday, April 5
Listening Behavior
Class Notes
english, notes, study, Listening Behavior, ctac
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by diamond tirado on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 225 at Eastern Michigan University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Listening Behavior in Computer Programming at Eastern Michigan University.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Chapter 9 Notes UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONS * the degree to which an organization listens is determined by several factors * an organization is a listening entity PURPOSE AND MISSION * purpose –what the organization exists to do, whether it’s manufacturing something, raising funds, or providing services to the public * mission statement answers 6 questions: (John Bryson) 1. Who are we? 2. What are the basic needs or problems for which we exist? 3. How do we respond to these needs? 4. How should we respond to key stakeholders? 5. What are our core values? 6. What makes us unique? * Janel Radtke argued that a good mission statement explains why a company or organization came into being in the first place, what need it was designed to meet; also noted that mission statements should address what needs an organization will be meeting; it is important for mission statements to outline the principles or beliefs that guide the work of the organization (its values) * Radtke also argued that “an effective mission statement must resonate with the people working in and for the organization, as well as with different constituencies that the organization hopes to affect. [Ideally it should] express the organization’s purpose in a way that inspires commitment, innovation, and courage.” ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE * organizational culture– the study of “an organization’s way of life,” one created by the history of the organization, its leaders, and employers * Edgar Schein defined culture as “a pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and therefore, taught to new members, as the correct way to see, think, and feel in relation to those problems” * organizational culture helps shape the context in which all interactions within an organization, even interpersonal exchanges, take place * organizational cognition– members of the organization have shared meanings, values, and rules * culture is a created “social reality” of how the organization operates, what it considers important, and how it treats its employees and other publics - underlying this reality are the values of the organization, or the principles on which they operate CULTURE GAPS * culture gap – when an organization fails to live by its stated values * culture gaps are differences in what an organization says it values and what it actually does in its day- to-day operations * these types of organizations are perceived to focus more on their own interest and often devalue listening by their actions ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE * organizational climate– the perception, usually on the part of employees or organizational members, of how things are in an organization; climate is defined as an individual’s perception of the important aspects of the work environment; essentially climate is a response to the culture of an organization * 43% of retention of employees is predicted by leadership, alignment, and collaboration * alignment – indicates that the organization is listening to the needs and values of employees and working with those needs * collaboration– indicates employees work together in a selfless manner; when these conditions exist in an organization, it has a listening environment or climate, and retention of employees is higher * if employees are constantly fearful of losing their jobs, or being reprimanded by supervisors, the climate is one of fear and dislike ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL SUPPORT * social support– based on the social relationships or networks that we develop * organizational social support– focuses on “the informational functions of supportive communication and the role that co-workers play in assisting one another in defining and making sense of their work environment” * Albrecht and Goldsmith noted that social support helps members of an organization to “manage uncertainty”; social support seems to help us maintain a sense of control over our everyday and work lives * social support can be summarized in two categories 1. Action-facilitating support– includes instrumental and informational support 2. Nurturing support– covers emotional, esteem, and social network support * instrumental support– focuses on doing tasks and favors * information support– addresses how corporations share and provide information * when you provide a listening ear as someone talks through a problem, you provide instrumental support; organizations provide instrumental support by making sure employees have access to the resources they need to do their jobs; coworkers also provide instrumental support for each other when they work cooperatively on a task * nurturing support– positive, supportive social relationships - organizations tend to be listening-safe climates, or climates in which one is free to express his or her views and to be listened to in a nonjudgmental way LISTENING, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND CORPORATE CLIMATE * climate and culture of the organization will either motivate or demotivate the existence of that support - when people feel comfortable at work and enjoy their jobs, productivity goes up; listening is key in this type of atmosphere * the most distressed individuals don’t want advice; they want to be heard * Brant Burleson suggested that supportive listening involves the following: 1. Focus attention on the other person, not personal feelings or experiences 2. Stay neutral. Avoid being judgmental or labeling information as good or bad. Staying neutral also includes encouraging the speaker to do the same thing 3. Focus on the speaker’s feelings rather than events. More than likely, it is the person’s feelings that need exploring 4. Support the other person’s feelings rather than trying to fix them or direct them. Express understanding of how the persona feels, rather than telling her how she should feel * social network support– another type of nurturing support; involves maintainingongoing relationships - students may think of this type of support as your network of friends and family - in an organization, this type of network can be colleagues in the business or industry or coworkers * modern communication makes maintaining a social network a special challenge; the ability to create virtual communities makes it very easy for us to form a network outside of our particular organization; this ease of communicating outside of our own organization can also provide some interesting communication and listening challenges * electronic communication mediums provide us with virtual networks; in business settings, these networks allow people to communicate about key issues, particularly when time is short and distances are great *using technology too much can cause people to become overly reliant on using the medium and not reaching out to people within the sameorganization; electronic networking can also lead to misunderstandings since receivers don’t have access to all of the information, such as facial expressions, vocal tones, needed to truly interpret someone’s remarks LEADERSHIP * leaders of an organization reflect its values and they also have a critical role in defining those values * Witt Communications addressed listening leaders - these leaders suggest that for leaders to be successful in contemporary business, they have to be good listeners - if they listen, they are able to identify problems before they get out of control, uncover causes of miscommunication and conflict, understand people, build rapport, gather and evaluate information, and generate solutions; also suggests that listening leaders build organizations that value collaboration (Witt’s Communication’s stance is supported by research that indicates that leaders spend up to 89% of their time communicating with subordinates) * inquiry – the art of asking questions, those that link values with actions and results by opening up thoughtful exploration of possibilities and actions THE LISTENING ORGANIZATION * organizations make choices about whether or not to listen; they choose to listen to their employees, customers, competitors, or the community * organizational listening– the responsiveness of an organization to the needs of its public; when organizations listen, they tend to have better reputations, more productive employees, better-quality products, and a happier customer base * it is the process of communication that keeps organizations current, competitive, relevant, and viable * two-way symmetrical model of public relations– reflects an organization that engages in two-way communication with its many publics * publics –any groups of people with which the organization has an interdependent relationship (e.g., employees, customers, community) * assumptions of this model underscore the strength of the interdependence of an organization with its various publics; assumptions include telling the truth, seeking joint understanding, and managing the perceptions of the various viewpointsrepresented in an organization or business relationship * a listening organization is one that fully engages in developing and maintaining two-way symmetrical interactions between it and the public * an interdependent relationship suggest that both parties, the organization and the public, make important contributions necessary for the organization to achieve its goals THE LEARNING (LISTENING) ORGANIZATION * listening organization– an organization that strives to maintain two-way symmetrical relationships listens to its publics and operates as a listening entity; keeps an open mind to changes in the world around it; open to creating and acquiring knowledge and converting it into organizational changes and new was of behaving * several ways to recognize a learning (listening) organization: - people in the organization ask a lot of questions and listento one another - employees have access to pertinent, accurate, and timely information - individuals can explain their thinking when they share ideas with others - employees are aware of what’s going on in all parts of the organization - people in the organization embrace the rituals of the organization’s culture - members of the organization use language and metaphors appropriate to that organization in their conversations - organizational members at all levels take improvement seriously - individuals tend to approach conflict in a constructive, straightforward manner - employees should be self-motivated and open to giving and receiving accurate and truthful feedback ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE AND CHANGE * organizations that exhibit the above characteristics of learning and listening find that they are better able to adapt to the changes they encounter * organizational structure– the alignment of personnel, or who reports to whom, who works with whom on what tasks and so forth - organizations are moving away from traditional structures aligned to a specific place, to networks that literally span the globe * telecommunication – this shift in the shape and definition of the workplace has forced organizations to face the challenge of adapting their operating and communication methods to meet the changing needs of employees * a listening organization will recognize the possible effect of the changing structure of the workplace and make changes necessary to keep the morale of employees high - they will also recognize that workplace needs are changing and make organizational changes to support those needs - it is better able to make other changes as well * systemic changes– how an organization handles large-scale organizational conflict LISTENING AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT * all organizations will encounter conflict; any time you have interdependent parties (or departments), you have a situation that is ripe for conflict * listening organizations realize ta all conflicts can be managed and encourage climates that foster open communication, trust, and acceptance * listening-safe zones – listening creates an atmosphere in which information can be exchanged freely and solutions emerge * listening plays two critical roles in conflict resolutions 1. It is the channel we use to get the informationwe need to resolve a conflict 2. Reduce the personal issues of conflict; all conflicts have objective issues and personal issues * objective issues– deal with facts, data, and information; easier to resolve * personal issues– personal and are typically based on emotions - active listening that is voluntary and “involves recognizing, understanding and accurately interpreting the messages received” gives he emotions in a conflict situation time to slow down and let the rational mind catch up - we can focus greater attention to rational processing of information and less of affective processing; we could also engage in dual processing * all organizations will face conflict, but a listening organization will resolve conflict in a manner that manages the situation; sensitive to cultural sensitivity and personality types EMPLOYEE RELATIONS * to be economically viable, companies have to focus on reducingemployee turnover, maintaining employee morale, and keep its employees long term; companies must not only listen to their workers, regardless of whether they are happy or angry, but they must also engage in appropriate follow-through * 5 steps suggested by Jeff Bannon to handle conflict 1. Inquire – let our coworker talk while you actively listen 2. Empathize –people like to feel that you can connect to them emotionally, particularly when they are feeling strong emotions such as anger 3. Ask permission – don’t assume a coworker wants or needs additional information or explanation; asking implies control, something that people who are angry or upset may feel they lack 4. Respond appropriately –can be ensured by listening carefully 5. Explaining and offering choices – if they are desired CUSTOMER SATISFACTION *listening organizations focus on developing customer relations; these relationships are critical today because consumers have easier access to more choices than ever before; companies must really listen to their customers and respond quickly to remain competitive * 47% of difference in low and high scores on customer service was caused largely by customer trust * listening is essential in customer service because it is the only way for an organization to identify what the needs and wants of the customers are * goal of listening is to have satisfied customers FAILURE TO LISTEN * miscommunication or communication failure can be caused by a range of problems, such as failure to receive all or part of the message or failure to understand the message * input failures– incorrectly perceiving or interpreting information; e.g., when an organization misreads market research or feedback from employees or other important parties * model failure – when the incoming information fails to fit with expectations or fit into the listener’s existing schema; the listener may make inappropriate inferences or reach the wrong conclusions about the information - on an organizational level, model failure can occur if an organization focuses more on its own ideas of product needs tan on changing trends * miscommunication can also occur in cross-cultural settings; companies must shift their models to incorporate cultural concerns * we understand or interpret actions an discourse by making inferences about the goals we think the other party has an the plans they have or attaining those goals BECOMING A LISTENING ORGANIZATION * all employees define their vision * yokoyama had to make a decision to be open to employee ideas * yoko. had to listen to words, but also the entire message, whether he agreed with it or not * yoko. also must work on suspending judgment and remaining open to ideas * everyone must take responsibility for his/her experience and perceptions and be able and willing to recognize the difference between blame and personal responsibility * in a regular organization, we might expect to hear employees playing the blame game; in a listening organization, each person takes personal responsibility to address problems andchallenges: this doesn’t mean everyone has to “fix” the problem, but each person has to be committed to working as a team member toward the team’s efforts * blaming language– focuses the blame and responsibility on the other person; e.g., “you make me so mad” * three categories of customers: 1. External 2. Internal 3. Competitors’ customers * an organizational listening system should allow an organization’s managers to get involved with customers in such a way they can get valuable information from thecustomer’s perspective * today, organizations listen to their customers by conducting focus groups or surveys, monitoring calls and e-mails to their customer service centers, establishing chat rooms and blogs for real-time interaction with customers, and monitoring other sites where their companies are being discussed


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