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Criminal Theory Week 8 lecture notes

by: Keisha Notetaker

Criminal Theory Week 8 lecture notes Criminal Justice 304

Keisha Notetaker
Long Beach State
GPA 3.5

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These are the notes from March 15th and 17th
Criminal Theory
Dr. Meeks
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keisha Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Criminal Justice 304 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Meeks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Criminal Theory in Criminal Justice at California State University Long Beach.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Lecture March 15 th Chapter 10 Violent Crime Typologies Introduction - The discussion of violent crime is primarily focused on: homicide, rape, robbery, assault, workplace violence, and stalking - Two theoretical frameworks help explain and to better understand variations in violent offending: o Subcultural perspective o Structural perspective - The subculture of violence thesis was first proposed by Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti (Chapter 6) - The thesis stresses the role of norms, values, and characteristics of certain groups as being influential in the lifestyle/culture of violence Violent Crime Statistic Keeping Violent Crime Statistics - Government-sponsored crime data gathering began in the 1930s in the U.S. - There are two main sources of official crime statistics today: o The National Crime Victimization (NCVS) conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) o The FBI’s data collection programs:  The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program  The National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) - In 2014, data indicated a decrease in most reported major violent crimes in the U.S., 1,165,383, from 2013 figure of 1,168,298 - However, recent social and economic data suggests the decline in violent crime maybe ending and we may be on the verge of a new cycle of increased violent crime - For the first six months of 2015, FBI statistical date indicate an increase in the number of violent crimes reported (murder +6.2, rape +9.6, robbery +0.3 and aggravated assault +2.3) compared to figures reported for the same period during 2014 - Possible explanations for this upward trend include: o Economic uncertainty o High unemployment among unskilled workers o Increasing numbers of disenfranchised ex-offenders released from custody o The increase in unemployed teenage population o The increasing influence of gangs o Copycat crimes (modeling) o Lingering social disorganization Murder/Homicide - Although the terms homicide and murder often are used interchangeable, they are not the same o Homicide: the willful killing of one human being by another (this includes both legal and illegal killings) o Murder/criminal homicide: causing the death of another person without legal justification or excuse - First-degree murder is planned or premeditated and involves malice aforethought or any activity in preparation to kill that shows the passage of time between the formation of the intent to kill and the act of killing - Some jurisdictions classify felony murder (a killing that occurs during the commission of another felony) as first-degree murder despite the lack of intent to kill - Second-degree murder is a crime of passion; the intent to kill and the actual killing are almost simultaneous - Third-degree murder refers to a homicide that is the result of some other unlawful or negligent action (also known as manslaughter, involuntary manslaughter, negligent manslaughter, or negligent homicide) - Smith and Parker differentiated homicide according to victim-offender relationships and distinguished two classifications of homicide: o Primary homicides: involve family members, friend, and acquaintances; usually characterized as expressive crimes resulting from acts of interpersonal hostility o Nonprimary homicides: victims and offenders have no prior relationship; usually occur in the course of another crime; usually characterized as instrumental crimes because they involve some premeditation and are less likely to be victim precipitated - Williams and Flewelling found that factors such as poverty and population size have different effects on different types of homicide, so that both the victim-offender relationship and the context of the event must be considered in explaining homicide patterns - Serial murder – involves the killing of (two) three or more victims by the same person in separate events o Estimates suggest that approximately 100 murders per year are the result of serial killings (35-50 active serial killers at any given time in the U.S.) o The typical offender is a white male, but all races have been represented, in his late 20s or 30s who targets strangers at or near home or work - Most serial killers are not insane or psychotic, although many are diagnosed as sociopaths - Predisposition to serial killing, much like other violent offenses, is biological, social, and psychological in nature, and it is not limited to any specific characteristic or trait - The majority of serial killers who are sexually motivated erotized violence during development. For them, violence and sexual gratification are inexplicably intertwined in their psyche - Mass murder involves killing more than four people at the same time in the same event - Paul Mullen identified a pseudo commando mass murderer: o As driven by strong feelings of anger and resentment o As one who usually plans attack but not escape o As one who generally believes they will die in the attack they plan to carry out - Levin and Fox identified three factors or elements that may lead to mass murder: o Presdisposers: long-term stable preconditions incorporated into the offender’s personality o Precipitants: short-term acute triggers or catalysis o Facilitators: situational conditions that increase the likelihood of violence but are not necessary to produce it Rape Rape Defined - Forced sexual intercourse including both psychological coercion as well as physical force - Forced sexual intercourse means penetration by the offender(s) - Includes attempted rapes, male as well as female victims, and both heterosexual and homosexual rape - Attempted rape includes verbal threats of rape Rape Numbers - Because many rapes and sexual assaults are not reported to the police, official (RCR) statistics frequently underestimate the extent of rape in the U.S. o Note: the common law definition of rape, which was recognized in the U.S. until mid 1970, did not recognize male victims or rape within marriage Rape Information - The majority of sexual violence involves an offender who is a family member, intimate partner, friend, or acquaintance - Only 1 in 4 (23%) rape or sexual assault victims receive help or advice from a victim service agency Perspectives on Rape - Feminist perspective: the patriarchal structures within society contributes to the privileged status of males, for which rape serves as a social control mechanism - Rape is seen as an act of power and/or domination, with sex as the tool used to subordinate the victim - A rape culture exists that sees male aggression as normal and blames women for their own rape - Gender inequality is related to rape rates because as women’s status in society increases rape as a mechanism of social control over women is used more frequently - Integrated theory of rape argues that higher levels of gender inequality, social disorganization and support for legitimate violence combine to produce higher rape rates at larger macro levels o Social disorganization refers to community inability to sustain social institutions that serve as a buffer to social ills such as crime, including rape o Support for legitimate violence refers to norms justifying the expression of violence in certain contexts, so that high rates of rape would be associated with high rates of other violent crime - The psychopathological perspective: o Rape is the result of idiosyncratic mode of behavior associated with mental disease o Rape often includes uncontrollable sexual impulses - Hazelwood and burgess developed a typology of rapists based on offender motivation revolving around the themes of power, anger and sadism - Stevens typology is also based on offender motivation with a key finding being that of the role of lust as a primary motive among a large proportion of the rapists - Scully used a feminist sociocultural perspective based on the assumptions that rape is a socially learned behavior and concluded rape is a reflection of a continuum of a societal normality Spousal rape - Spousal rape is now illegal in all states - Russell’s typology of men who rape their wives o Husbands who prefer raping their wives to having consensual sex with them o Husbands who enjoy both rape and consensual sex with their wives or are indifferent to the type - Husbands who prefer consensual sex with their wives but are willing to rape them if their sexual advances are refused - Husbands who might like to rape their wives but do not act out these desires Assault - Assault- is the most frequent violent crime and is similar psychologically to homicide - Assault has become the starting point for more serious interpersonal violence events - The typical aggravated assault offender mirrors that of homicide: o Disproportionate involvement of males o Those 15-34 years old o Those of lower socioeconomic status o Those with prior arrest records o Those showing little evidence of offense specialization Assault-intimate partner - The National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAW) believes the extent of physical abuse among intimate partners in the U.S. is unknown due to underreporting - Intimate-partner assault involves assaultive behavior between individuals involved in an intimate relationship - Violent relationships between intimate partners are characterized by a cycle of violence using numerous forms of social control mechanisms: o Physical and emotional attacks o Threats or attacks against children - Most intimate-partner violence is perpetrated by men Assault within families - Family violence is difficult to research because the family as a social institution is private - Discussion of violence among family members violates this privacy - Early research found women much more likely than men to be victims of domestic violence Stalking - Stalking: “A course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated visual or physical proximity nonconsensual communication, or verbal, written or implied threats, or a combination thereof, that would cause a reasonable person fear” - Cyberstalking-involves using electronic communication such as e- mail or the internet to harass individuals Types of Stalkers - Rejected stalkers - Intimacy-seeking stalkers - Resentful vendetta-motivated stalkers - Predatory stalker (the one that eventually kill you because they never give up) Stalking - The majority of victims are women - The majority of stalkers are men - Majority of victims are between 18 and 39 years of age - Majority of the victims know the stalker - Stalking related behaviors include: o Making phone calls o Following the victim o Sending letters/emails o Making threats o Vandalizing property o Watching the victim - Stalking in intimate partner relationships can occur: o Before relationship ends o After relationship ends - Men who stalked former wives were more likely than non-stalking ex- husbands to engage in emotional abuse and controlling behavior towards wife


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