General Biology BIO 1050 - 02
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Fields on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1050 - 02 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Whelan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan Meiosis Sexual Reproduction and Basic Genetics I. Sexual reproduction A. Background a. What characteristic do offspring of asexual reproduction have? b. What characteristic do offspring of sexual reproduction have? c. Describe the number of chromosomes human cells have & how they are arranged in pairs. d. Describe homologous chromosomes. e. These 23 pairs of chromosomes include 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes. i) What are autosomes? ii) What are sex chromosomes? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan iii) What sex chromosomes do human females have? Are they homologous chromosomes? iv) What sex chromosomes do human males have? Are they homologous chromosomes? f. If a cell is diploid, what does that mean? i) What is the abbreviation for diploid? ii) What human cells are diploid? iii) How many chromosomes do diploid human cells contain? g. If a cell is haploid, what does that mean? i) What is the abbreviation for haploid? ii) What human cells are haploid? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan iii) How many chromosomes do haploid human cells contain? h. What are gametes? i. What are the two types of cell division in eukaryotes? 1) 2) i) What types of cells does meiosis create? ii) What happens if there are errors during meiosis? iii) Describe meiosis. iv) How many cell divisions occur during meiosis and how many cells are produced? j. What is a life cycle? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan i) What is a zygote? ii) Describe the life cycle of a human. B. Origins of genetic variation a. What are 2 reasons why offspring from sexual reproduction are genetically different from their parents & each other? 1) 2) b. Describe what we mean by random fertilization. c. What is crossing over? i) What is the result of crossing over? ii) Why is crossing over important? C. Twins a. How are fraternal (dizygotic) twins formed? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan b. How are identical (monozygotic) twins formed? II. Basic Genetics A. Chromosomes and alleles a. Do both copies of our genes code for the same version of a trait? b. What is an allele? c. Give an example of a gene and an allele. d. Alleles can be either __________ or __________. e. What does it mean for an allele to be dominant? f. What does it mean for an allele to be recessive? g. What is homozygous dominant? h. What is heterozygous? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan i. What is homozygous recessive? B. Crosses a. What is a monohybrid cross? b. What is a genotype? c. What is a phenotype? d. Explain the P generation, F1 generation, and F 2generation C. Describe how to make a Punnett Square (i.e., how many squares, what goes in each column of the square, etc.) to solve monohybrid crosses. Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan a. Draw a Punnett Square for a cross between two heterozygous individuals. b. If purple flowers are dominant to white flowers in the example above, what phenotypes are present in the F 2offspring and in what proportions? c. What are the genotypes and their proportions from this example cross? III. Human Genetics A. Background a. Who discovered the basic patterns of inheritance? b. To what kind of human traits do Mendel’s principles apply? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan B. How are many human disorders controlled? C. What does it mean for a condition to be recessive? To be dominant? a. Are most disorders recessive or dominant? b. Who are carriers? What possible genotype(s) can a carrier have? c. List examples of recessive disorders. d. Describe cystic fibrosis e. What happens when 2 carriers mate? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan D. Dominant disorders a. Are dominant alleles necessarily better than the corresponding recessive allele? b. Are dominant alleles necessarily more common than the corresponding recessive allele? c. Why are lethal dominant disorders rare? d. How can a lethal dominant disorder get passed on from generation to generation? e. List examples of dominant disorders. f. Describe Huntington’s disease