Biology 1 Notes for 2/29-3/4
Biology 1 Notes for 2/29-3/4 BIOL 11900
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by jsmith22 on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11900 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Rebecca Brady in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies in Biology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
● Homeostasis ○ Ability to selfregulate create a constant internal environment ○ Regulated internal environment ○ Feedback Control regulates homeostasis ■ Negative feedback response to stimulus causes the opposite, EX. feel too warm= body turns the heater off ○ Blood Sugar Regulation ■ Regulated by the pancreas and liver ● High Blood Sugar ○ Beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into blood ■ Insulin is a hormone ■ Type 1 diabetes=body destroys pancreatic beta cells ○ Insulin makes body cells take up more glucose ○ Insulin makes liver take and store glucose as glycogen ○ Blood sugar levels decline ● Low Blood Sugar ○ Alpha Cells of pancreas release glucagon into blood ■ Alpha cells can be affected by hypoglycemia ○ Glucagon makes liver break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood ○ Glucagon activates a hunger response ○ Blood Sugar levels rise ● Cellular Respiration ○ Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are reciprocal processes ○ Occurs in the mitochondria and cytoplasm ○ Cellular respiration depends on the flow of high energy electrons ■ Sugar contains many high energy bonds ■ Electron carriers (NAD+) shuttle high energy electrons between reactions ● Loaded electron carriers NADH ■ Electron transport chain harnesses energy released in redox reactions, slowly ● Makes it easier for energy to be harvested and used ○ Substrate level phosphorylation transfers phosphate group from substrate to ADP ○ Process ■ Glycolysis ■ Pyruvate Oxidation ● Transported into mitochondrial matrix by coenzyme A ● Releases one CO2 and loads 1 electron carrier per pyruvate ● Carried away by acetyl CoA ○ Gets rid of used up carbon in CO2 ■ Citric Acid Cycle ● completes oxidation of acetylCoA ● Expels the remaining carbon from the sugar molecule ○ exhaled as CO2 ■ Electron Transport Chain ● creates a proton gradient across the inner membrane ○ Energy gradient is stored energy ● ATP synthase uses the proton gradient to power ATP synthesis ○ Forces ADP and free phosphate together with mechanical force ○ Turbine powered by movement of protons ● Allosteric feedback regulates cellular respiration ○ Products of cellular respiration inhibit respiration ○ Excess AMP stimulates respiration ■ Cells can use other biomolecules as energy sources Process Location Inputs Outputs Glycolysis Cytosol Glucose, 2 ATP 2 Pyruvate, 4 ATP, 2 NADH Pyruvate Matrix 2 pyruvate, 2 CO2, 2 NADH, Oxidation Coenzyme A 2 Acetyl CoA Citric Acid Cycle Matrix 2 AcetylCoA 4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP Electron Inner Membrane All Loaded H+ gradient, H2O Transport Chain electron carriers, O2 Chemiosmosis Across inner H+ gradient, Lots Lots of ATP, 28 Membrane of ADP and 32 per glucose Phosphates ○