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Biology 1 Notes for 2/29-3/4

by: jsmith22

Biology 1 Notes for 2/29-3/4 BIOL 11900

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Biology > BIOL 11900 > Biology 1 Notes for 2 29 3 4

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About this Document

Cover homeostasis and beginning of cellular respiration
Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies
Professor Rebecca Brady
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by jsmith22 on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11900 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Rebecca Brady in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies in Biology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
● Homeostasis ○ Ability to self­regulate ­ create a constant internal environment ○ Regulated internal environment ○ Feedback Control­ regulates homeostasis ■ Negative feedback­ response to stimulus causes  the opposite, EX. feel too warm= body turns the heater off ○ Blood Sugar Regulation ■ Regulated by the pancreas and liver ● High Blood Sugar ○ Beta cells of the  pancreas release insulin into blood ■ Insulin  is a hormone ■ Type 1 diabetes=body destroys pancreatic beta cells ○ Insulin makes body  cells take up more glucose ○ Insulin makes liver  take and store glucose as glycogen ○ Blood sugar levels  decline ● Low Blood Sugar ○ Alpha Cells of  pancreas release glucagon into blood ■ Alpha  cells can be affected by hypoglycemia  ○ Glucagon makes liver break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood ○ Glucagon activates a  hunger response  ○ Blood Sugar levels  rise ● Cellular Respiration ○ Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are reciprocal processes ○ Occurs in the mitochondria and cytoplasm ○ Cellular respiration depends on the flow of high energy electrons ■ Sugar contains many high energy bonds ■ Electron carriers (NAD+) shuttle high energy  electrons between reactions ● Loaded electron carriers­ NADH ■ Electron transport chain harnesses energy released in redox reactions, slowly  ● Makes it easier for energy to be  harvested and used ○ Substrate level phosphorylation transfers phosphate group from  substrate to ADP  ○ Process ■ Glycolysis ■ Pyruvate Oxidation ● Transported into mitochondrial  matrix by coenzyme A ● Releases one CO2 and loads 1  electron carrier per pyruvate ● Carried away by acetyl CoA ○ Gets rid of used up  carbon in CO2 ■ Citric Acid Cycle ● completes oxidation of acetyl­CoA ● Expels the remaining carbon from  the sugar molecule ○ exhaled as CO2 ■ Electron Transport Chain ● creates a proton gradient across the  inner membrane  ○ Energy gradient is  stored energy ● ATP synthase uses the proton  gradient to power ATP synthesis ○ Forces ADP and free  phosphate together with mechanical force ○ Turbine powered by  movement of protons  ● Allosteric feedback regulates cellular respiration  ○ Products of cellular  respiration inhibit respiration ○ Excess AMP  stimulates respiration  ■ Cells can use other biomolecules as energy  sources  Process Location Inputs Outputs Glycolysis Cytosol Glucose, 2 ATP 2 Pyruvate, 4  ATP, 2 NADH Pyruvate  Matrix 2 pyruvate,  2 CO2, 2 NADH,  Oxidation Coenzyme A 2 Acetyl CoA Citric Acid Cycle Matrix 2 Acetyl­CoA 4 CO2, 6 NADH,  2 FADH2, 2 ATP Electron  Inner Membrane All Loaded  H+ gradient, H2O Transport Chain electron carriers,  O2 Chemiosmosis Across inner  H+ gradient, Lots Lots of ATP, 28­ Membrane of ADP and  32 per glucose  Phosphates ○


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