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Exam III Book Notes

by: Crystal Florman

Exam III Book Notes HUM 1022-08

Crystal Florman
GPA 3.64

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Notes on all the suggested book readings for Exam III- Absolutism
Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment
Mr. Micheal Prahl
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 1022-08 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Mr. Micheal Prahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment in Arts and Humanities at University of Northern Iowa.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Exam 3 Book Notes Pg. 378  Conflict in the Holy Roman Empire and Italy o Armed conflict was intended to have people gain power, but no person could get a stronghold as a leader o Most conflict happened between 1350 and 1450 o Most of Italy was in conflict, but few cities showed success in their own governments  Venice- oligarchy of merchants  Milan- family of despots  Florence- ruled as a republic under strong influence of the wealthy (Medici)  The Growth of National Monarchies o Countries were working together more now than ever before o National identity started to form o National monarchy- forged by war and fueled by the growing importance of vernacular languages  Constant tug-o-war for power/ territory for each country Pg. 406- 410 The Politics of Christian Europe  France won Hundred Year’s War and built back their prestige and extended territory- England had 30 more years of civil unrest that affected everyone there  1494- Charles VIII of France trued to expand his rule into Italy- lead 30,000 men into Italy (over Alps into Milan and Naples)  Rulers of Spain were forced to make an uneasy alliance with some papal states  Northern Italy’s trade was slowly eroding by shifting of trade routes and increasing power of the Ottoman Empire  Imperial Power of Ivan the Great o The first to lay down a distinctive imperial agenda o Launched a series of conquests that annexed the independent principalities between Moscow and Poland- Lithuania o Invaded Lithuania in 1492 and 1501 and brought some of it under his control o Married the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor o Built the Kremlin o Died in 1505- Muscovy was a well-established power  Growth of National Churches o Concordant- religious treaties that granted rulers extensive authority over churches within their domains  Granted by popes- pretty much giving up power to win over kings o As they lose power the popes have to run the Papal States as the king would (war, assassinations, murder)- the Papal States Exam 3 Book Notes became one of the best governed and wealthier principalities of the time  Did nothing to increase the pope’s Godly reputation  The Triumph of the Reconquista o 1469  Prince Ferdinand of Aragon recognized as undisputed heir to that throne  Married Isabella- heiress of Castile o Castile and Aragon still ruled separately o Their marriage was the star of many ambitious policies  Put the revenue together from both countries to form a very powerful army  Tried to conquer Muslim Spain- Granada fell in 1492  The End of the Convivencia and Expulsion of the Jews o Convivencia- living together or harmonious coexistence o Muslim leaders in Spain were very religiously tolerant- this lead to a culturally diverse country o 1492  End of Muslim reign in Spain  New rulers trying to make Spain all Christian  Expelled as many as 200,000 Jewish people o Tens of thousands of Jews converted to Christianity between 1391 and 1420, but the “Most Catholic” Monarchs weren’t convinced they could all convert o Spanish Jews- some traveled north into Germany and Europe, most settled in Muslim regions of the Mediterranean and Middle East and Ottoman Empire  The Extension of the Reconquista o Conquering the Muslim part of Spain wasn’t enough  Wanted one language throughout the country- Castilian Spanish as the national language  Wanted to expand Christian rule  3 ships endorsed by Isabella to sail West to get to India and all new land claimed as Spain’s Pg. 486-474 The 30 Year’s War and the Rise of France  Started as a religious conflict but quickly became an international struggle for dominance  Weakened all the kingdoms in Europe except France  The Beginnings of the 30 Year’s War o 1618- Ferdinand (Catholic) was named heir to Bohemia (Protestant)  Rebellion of Bohemian Aristocracy Exam 3 Book Notes  Ferdinand voted Holy Roman Emperor- used Catholic army to crush Protestant revolts  Bohemians had support from some Austrian nobility who believed Protestants could rule again o 1620- Ottoman was behind protestant Bohemia  Started conflict with Catholic Poland  Poland won- Ottoman retreated  Philip IV- Ferdinand’s cousin- started war against Protestant Dutch Republic (they won their independence from Spain in 1609)  Bohemia was forced to accept Ferdinand’s Catholic rule  The Tangled Politics and Terrible Price of War o Many more countries were sucked into the Catholic vs Protestant fight o A confederation of Catholic Princes were about to uproot Protestantism in Germany- were stopped because Catholic Germans were willing to ally with the Protestants o Gustavus Adolphus  Protestant King of Sweden  Championed German Lutheran states and his own  Great leader- one of the best armies and countries o 1635  Gustavus died- France joined Sweden in declaring war in Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs  German speaking lands in central Europe were the battle grounds  Already devastated by previous war- almost completely wiped out  Fighting continued after peace negotiations came  The Peace of Westphalia and the Decline of Spain o Adoption of peace in 1648  Habsburgs were forced to give up their territory  France is the predominant force in Europe- remains that way for 200 years o Insurgence of silver into Spain  Could have built their own industries, but bought goods and things from other European countries  As silver stopped coming to Spain their debt rose significantly o Spain is in really bad shape  The Emergence of French Power in Europe and North America o The people in France could get behind King Louis IX o France could feed itself, unlike Spain Exam 3 Book Notes o Louis IX ministries financed roads, bridges, and canals for flow of goods o Encouraged making of luxury items- crystals, glass, and tapestry o Supported the manufacturing of silk, wool, and lined throughout kingdom o Samuel de Champlain  1608- settled Quebec- French hold in the new world o French trade and missionaries spread south on rivers trading and converting- settled by great lakes and most of the Midwest o French settlers and American Indians became interdependent of each other- interracial marriages and dependence on mother land  The policies of Cardinal Richelieu o His goal- centralize royal bureaucracy while exploiting opportunities to foster French influence abroad o Real king at the time was Louis VIII- 9 years old so cardinal was in power o Amended the Edict of Nantes- no longer supported military and political rights of Huguenots- they couldn’t settle in Quebec o Great centralization of France allowed it to be successful in 30 Year’s War- lead to the French Revolution  The Challenge of Fronde o String of rebellions because foreigners took power in France o Aristocracy wasn’t targeting young king, rather Mazarin o Louis XIV- came into power at a young age and promised aristocracy would never get out of hand- most effective absolute monarch in Europe Pg. 474-489 The Crisis of Monarchy in England  The origins of the Civil War o Queen Elizabeth drove England in debt o King James VI tried to raise taxes- Parliament said no, but he generated revenue wherever he could- created resentment towards king  Religious conflicts between subjects in England  Parliament vs the King o King Charles asked Parliament to fund a new war with Spain- they said no o Forced his subjects to pay and if they didn’t they would be forced to house a soldier or go to jail o Petition of Right in 1628- declared that taxes not voted by parliament were illegal, condemned arbitrary imprisonment, and prohibited quartering of soldiers Exam 3 Book Notes o Parliament didn’t want to grant Charles the money for an army but they voted for taxes to make themselves an army o King- Cavaliers- aristocrats o Parliament- Roundheads- smaller land owners and common folk o Parliament was ready to put Charles back on the throne with limited power- radical group of Puritans demanded religious freedom- Oliver Cromwell lead the Roundhead army- became the new leader of Parliament and England  The Fall of Charles Stuart and Oliver Cromwell’s Commonwealth o Charles started war with Spain again in 1648- but lost his power in government to Cromwell o Cromwell forced all the non-Puritans out of Parliament- he tried and convicted Charles of treason against his country and his subjects and had him publicly beheaded o Charles’ son fled to France o Cromwell and supporters abolished Parliament’s heredity- established a commonwealth o Cromwell shortly disbanded that parliament and the commonwealth was replaced with a protectorate- autocracy o Instrument of Government- the closest thing England has had for a constitution up to this point  The restoration of the Monarchy o Cromwell died and Charles II is declared King since his father’s death in 1649 o Charles II was careful not to return to his father’s religious policies and respected all acts posed by parliament prior to the civil war  English Civil War and the Atlantic World o Colonies were used to beg fairly independent because all the focus was on England’s Civil War- so when parliament tried to have more control over the colonies they hit some tension o Sudden decrease of immigrants forced colonies to turn to unfree labor- slaves and indentured servants The Problem of Doubt and the Art of Being Human  Witchcraft and the Power of the State o Increasing threat because those people could do what they do because of the devil o People accused of this crime were tried and tortured more than a regular criminal o Continued up through the 1620’s in England- then took off in Salem and Massachusetts Bay colonies o Because the church could not execute- most of the speculating, hunting and killing was done by the state  The Search for a Source for Authority o Michel de Montaigne Exam 3 Book Notes  Wrote essays that evoked skepticism to all traditional ways of knowing the world- very introspective- what do I know?  Every human perspective is limited- cannibalism may seem okay to some people, but to others it is immoral  The need for moderation- accept the teachings of religion and obey the government without taking it to an extreme o Blaise Pascal  Jansenism- established the truth of Christianity by appealing to both intellect and emotion  “Pensees”- Thoughts- argued that only faith could resolve the conditions of the world  The Science of Politics o Jean Bodin  Six Books of Commonwealth  Family oriented communities and maintain order  Head of the state could make and enforce laws without people’s consent  People had no right to rise up against it o Thomas Hobbes  Leviathan 1651  Need a strong state to protect people’s lives and property o Both men helped develop political science  The World of the Theater o Christopher Marlowe  May have been a spy for Elizabeth’s government  Tamberlaine and Doctor Faustus- created heroes that pursue larger than life adventures but limited by just being human o Ben Jonson  Dark comedies  Alchemist- science o William Shakespeare  Great play write that covered many political, spiritual, and romantic topics  The Artists of Southern Europe o El Greco  Greek painter  Very advanced for his time so it was hard to find a lot of people truly interested in his work  Mannerism style  View of Toledo o Gianlorenzo Bernini  Baroque architect and sculptor  Worked for aristocracy, papacy, and royalty Exam 3 Book Notes  Dutch Painting in the Golden Age o Pieter Bruegel the Elder  Display of modest living  Peasant Wedding and Peasant Wedding Dance  The Massacre of Innocents- inspired by Puritan riots of the time o Peter Paul Rubens  The Horrors of War- nudes, pink and rounded flesh of well- nourished nudes o Rembrandt van Rijn  Both baroque and realism  Many self portraits Pg. 490-501 The Appeal and Justification of Absolutism  Absolutism- completely ruled by the king who has no restrictions o Most effective absolute monarchs traded privileges with allegiances- so nobles see that their interests were the same as the crown The Absolutism of Louis XIV  Performing Royalty at Versailles o A big part of power was putting on a grand show to show subjects that the ruler needs to have that position  Administration and Centralization o Many people in power in power came from other places o Many used to collect taxes  Taille- land tax  Capitation- head tax  Indirect taxes on salt  Wine  Tobacco and other goods  Louis XIV’s Religious Policies o Got rid of the Edict of Nantes (religious toleration in France) and persecuted the Huguenots o Huguenots fled to other countries and took their trades with them- huge economic loss for France o Many families converted to Catholicism  Colbert and Royal Finance o Colbert- in charge of the king’s finances o Tightened the process of tax collecting  Less tax farming- permitted collection agents to keep a percentage of the taxes they gathered  Increased profits from 25% to 80% Exam 3 Book Notes o Imposed tariffs on foreign goods and promoted in country manufacturing o Louis was too greedy and no matter the amount of money coming in he spent it recklessly  French Colonialism Under Louis XIV o Colbert told Louis that overseas colonization is a must o Encouraged the development of sugar producing colonies in the West Indies- became the biggest producer of sugar o Dominated interior of North America  Interdependent economy between French settlers and Native Americans o Wealth from sugar trade made France even more powerful Pg. 501- 517 Alternatives to Absolutism  The Restoration of Monarchy in England o First king is back- Charles II- son of Charles I  Limited toleration of protestants not part of the Church of England  Promised to observe the Magna Carta and Petition of Right o After Civil War England was a limited Monarchy o Charles II died in 1685- throne left to his brother James o James II believed in absolutism  Maintained an army in times of peace  He was catholic and favored them  Surprise birth of son in 1688- replaced Mary (his oldest daughter) as the heir to the English and Scottish throne o Parliament invited Mary and her husband William of Orange to take over as King and Queen of England  The Glorious Revolution o James exiled to France left the throne open  William and Mary took over the throne o Bill of Rights 1689- reaffirmed English Civil Liberties  Declared that monarchy was subject to the law of the land o Act of Toleration 1689  Granted protestant dissenters the right to worship freely, but not hold political office o Act of Succession 1701  Every future English monarch must be a member of the church of England o Mixed rule- King in Parliament o Parliament became stronger and strengthened in control over taxation and expenditure Exam 3 Book Notes o Glorious Revolution was not bloodless  Fighting was in Ireland  James II brought French troops  William sent soldiers as well o Fighting encouraged the growth and political power of English commercial classes  John Locke and the Contract Theory of Government o Completely against absolutism o He believed that government was developed to protect 3 natural rights: life, liberty, and property o This idea was a starting point for the American and French Revolutions  The Dutch Republic o Dutch Republic of the United Provinces- gained independence from Spain in 1648 o Worked hard to prevent the reestablishment of hereditary monarchy o Despite geographical setbacks- DR was huge in trade  Diverse trade brought diverse people to take advantage of the mostly tolerant republic War and Balance of Power 1661- 1715  From the League of Augsburg to the War of Spanish Succession o League of Augsburg- England, United Provinces, Prussia, and Austria  1697- league forced Louis to make peace because his country was in shambles  Keep the balance of power  1690’s- King Charles II of Spain was going to die soon- with no heir to the throne- gave rule to King Louis’ grandson Philip of Anjou (Philip V)  Right after Philip V took the throne Louis XIV sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands also French merchants to Spanish Americas to try to break their monopoly on trade o When William died in 1702- generals took over army and successfully defeated the French  Queen Anne was tired of fighting- sent peacemakers to France o Treaty of Utrecht- 1713- pretty fair all the way around  Imperial Rivalries After the Treaty of Utrecht o 1703- English signed a treaty with Portugal allowing English merchants to export wine duty free with England o Shift in economics- Britain is now on top The Remaining of Central and Eastern Europe  The Austrian Habsburg Empire Exam 3 Book Notes o 1648- Treaty of Westphalia- granted individual member states within the Holy Roman Empire the right to conduct their own foreign policy o Austrian ruler losing power, but by 1722 they reconquered a lot of land from the Ottoman Empire  The Rise Brandenburg- Prussia o Main threat to Austria o Lots of land acquired and conquered by Hohenzollern family o Frederick William- “The Great Elector”  Obtained eastern Prussia by helping them in war against Sweden  Built a huge army, mobilized well  Didn’t tax aristocrats to get them on his side- but they did have to quarter soldiers o Frederick I- Frederick William’s son  King of Prussia  Focused on developing the culture life in Berlin o Frederick William I- Frederick I’s son  Focused on building an army Autocracy in Prussia  Early Years of Peter’s Reign o Came into power at a young age o 1689- overthrew Regency of his half-sister Sophia and became the sole ruler of Russia o 1690’s- traveled to Holland and Europe to study ship building and to recruit skilled laborers  The Transformation of the Tsarist State o Attempted to westernize Russia o Peter’s real goal was to make Russia a great military power  New tax system (1724)- assessed the individual and not the household  1722- Table of Ranks- work your way through the classes o Replaced Duma with a handpicked senate o Took over Russian Orthodox Church by appointing an official to manage it  Russian Imperial Expansion o Peter’s foreign policy goal was to secure year round ports on the black sea and the Baltic o Great Northern War- fought Sweden- gained more territory  Ended in 1721 with the Treaty of Nystad- similar to Treaty of Utrecht


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