New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 1 Notes 3/28

by: jsmith22

Biology 1 Notes 3/28 BIOL 11900

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Biology > BIOL 11900 > Biology 1 Notes 3 28

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Covers DNA and RNA replication in addition to cell cycle and Mitosis
Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies
Professor Rebecca Brady
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by jsmith22 on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11900 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Rebecca Brady in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies in Biology at Ithaca College.


Reviews for Biology 1 Notes 3/28


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/03/16
● DNA and RNA Replication ○ DNA is made of two complementary strands ■ A pairs to T ■ C pairs to G ■ Held together with lots of hydrogen bonds ○ Each strand of DNA has a 5’ end and a 3’ end  ■ 5’ ­ the strand ends in a phosphate, beginning  ■ 3’­ strand ends in sugar ○ DNA strands are antiparallel ■ 5’ end matches with 3’ end  ○ Each strand must have correct letters and be antiparallel in order  to be complementary  ○ New nucleotides are only added to the 3’ end  ■ Loss of extra phosphate groups provide energy for  the new bond ○ DNA polymerase is a large protein complex that synthesizes new  DNA ■ DNA strand threads thru while new phosphates are  added  ■ Requires a primer to begin DNA synthesis ● Primase makes primers ■ Makes DNA from 5’ to 3’ ■ DNA synthesis occurs at the forks in a replication  bubble  ● Edges of the bubble called the fork ● Cell Cycle and Mitosis ○ Life cycle of a cell can be divided into multiple stages ○ Cells exit the cell cycle and go into G0 ■ This is where the cells do their bodily function ■ Most of the cells in your body are in the G0 phase ○ Chromosomes are single long pieces of DNA that contains  thousands of genes ■ Most vertebrates are diploid ­ two versions of each  chromosome  ■ At the beginning of mitosis chromosomes condense into chromatids ■ Identical copies of chromosomes made during S  phase are sister chromatids ● They are glued together basically  ○ Cell Cycle (Mitosis) ■ Prophase ● Chromosomes condense  ● Begin to form long microtubules,  becomes the spindle ■ Prometaphase ● Fully condensed chromosomes  ● Spindle fibers attach at the  centromeres of chromosomes  ■ Metaphase ● Chromosomes are attached to  spindles from both sides, pulled in both directions ● Chromosomes are lined up in the  middle of the cell on the metaphase plate ● Critical to complete before next  phase  ■ Anaphase ● Sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle, become daughter chromosomes  ■ Telophase ● Chromosomes in each side ● Nuclear envelope reforms  ■ Cytokinesis  ● The process of dividing the rest of  the organelles in the cells ■ Cell cycle control system provide quality control for  cell division  ● G1 checkpoint is controlled by  external signals and conditions  ○ Growth factors­  proteins outside the cell that signal a cell to divide  ○ Usually required to  exit G0 ○ Density dependent  inhibition­ crowded cells stop dividing  ○ Anchorage  dependent­ cells must be attached to divide  ● G2 checkpoint ­ internal ○ DNA ok? ○ Cell big enough?? ● M checkpoint­ metaphase of mitosis ○ The point of no return ○ Chromosomes sound  alarm until all are attached to microtubules  ● Meiosis ○ The formation of gametes  ○ Homologous chromosomes­ Each person has two versions of  each chromosome 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.