Management notes for the week of 3/28
Management notes for the week of 3/28 MGMT 300
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric LaPree on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 300 at University of North Dakota taught by Nikolaus Butz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business, management at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Ch. 12 Key Terms: Motivation – The psychological processes that arouse and direct goaldirected behavior. Extrinsic rewards / motivation – Payoff a person receives from others for performing a particular task. Intrinsic rewards / motivation – Satisfaction a person receives from performing the particular task itself. Need Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior. Inputs – What you believe you are putting into a job. Outputs (rewards) – What you think you are getting out of the job. Comparison – How we think our ratio of input to outputs compares to others. Motivation – The psychological processes that arouse and direct goaldirected behavior. Requires energy and direction Must be inferred from one’s behavior Steps to motivation 1. Unfulfilled need – desire is created to fulfill a need as for food, safety recognition. 2. Motivation – you search for ways to satisfy the need 3. Behaviors – you choose a type of behavior you thing might satisfy the need 4. Rewards – two types of rewards satisfy needs, extrinsic or intrinsic An integrated model of motivation includes personal and contextual factors Personal factors Personality Ability Core selfevaluation Emotions Attitudes Needs Contextual factors Organizational culture crosscultural values Physical environment Rewards and reinforcement Group norms Communication tech Leader behavior Organizational design Extrinsic rewards / motivation – Payoff a person receives from others for performing a particular task. (Things like money or praise) Intrinsic rewards / motivation – Satisfaction a person receives from performing the particular task itself. You want to motivate to: 1. Join your organization – you need to instill in talented prospective workers the desire to come to work for you 2. Stay with your organization – whether you are in good economic times or bad, you always want to be able to retain good people 3. Show up for work at your organization – in many organizations, absenteeism and lateness are tremendous problems 4. Be engaged while at your organization – engaged employees produce higher quality work and better customer service 5. Do extra for your organization – you hope your employees will perform extra tasks above and beyond the call of duty Content perspectives (AKA the needbased perspective) – Theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people Need Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs 1. Psychological needs – These are the most basic human physical needs, in which one is concerned with having food, clothing, shelter, and comfort and with selfpreservation. 2. Safety needs – These needs are concerned with physical safety and emotional security, so that a person is concerned with avoiding violence and threats. 3. Love needs – Once basic needs and security are taken care of, people look for love, friendship, and affection. 4. Esteem needs – After they meet their social needs, people focus on such matters as self respect, status, reputation, recognition, and selfconfidence. 5. Selfactualization needs – The highest level of need, selfactualization is selffulfillment – the need to develop one’s fullest potential, to become the best one is capable of being a. Progression hypothesis – the lowes level of ungratified needs motivate behavior and once a level is satisfied the person progresses up the hierarchy and focuses on the next level Alderfer’s ERG theory: Existence needs – desire for physiological and material wellbeing Relatedness needs desire to have meaningful relationships with people that are significant to us Growth needs – deire to grow as human beings and to use our abilities to their fullest potential Different individuals have different importance on the needs Regression hypothesis – when people become frustrated by a need that is difficult to attain he or she will drop or regress one level lower down the hierarchy and intensify his or her efforts at a lower level McClelland’s acquired needs theory Acquired needs theory – 3 needs (achievement, affiliation, and power) are major motives determining a person’s behavior in the workplace 1. Need for achievement – desire to achieve excellence in challenging tasks 2. Need for affiliation – desire for friendly and warm relations with others 3. Need for power – desire to be responsible for or control others Herzberg’s twofactor theory Proposes that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors – work satisfaction from socalled motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from socalled hygiene factors Motivation factors (higher level) – factors associated with job satisfaction which affects the job content or the rewards of work performance Hygiene factors (lower level) – factors associated with job dissatisfaction which affect the job context in which people work Process perspective – concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act Why employees have different needs What behaviors employees will select to met their needs How employees evaluate whether or not the behavior they select to meet the given need was successful Equity theory – focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others Employees are motivated to resolve feelings of injustice in subjective comparisosns to the rewards that others receive for task performance. Inputs – What you believe you are putting into a job. Outputs (rewards) – What you think you are getting out of the job. Comparison – How we think our ratio of input to outputs compares to others. Perceived equity Employees feel satisfied Support the organization Cooperate in group settings Won’t change behavior Perceived Inequity Employees feel resentful Results in behavior to address the inequality o Reduce inputs o Try to increase outputs they receive o Distort perception of inequity o Change the object of comparison o Leave the situation Practical lessons from expectancy theory 1. Get to know your employees so that you can determine what outcomes / rewards they will value 2. Clearly define the performance levels that employees need to achieve in order to earn rewards 3. Provide separate individual and team based rewards 4. Prove to employees that you have the power, ability, and willingness to give them rewards. Goal setting theory – employees can be motivated specific and challenging, but achievable 4 motivational mechanisms 1. Directing your attention – focus of goalrelevant tasks and ignore irrelevant ones 2. Regulating the effort expended – exert energy proportionate with the goal’s difficulty 3. Increasing your persistence – view obstacles as challenges to surpass, not reasons to fail 4. Fostering use of strategies and action plans – focus on achieving success 4 characteristics of good goals 1. Goals should be specific 2. Goals should be challenging but achievable 3. Goals should be linked to an action plan 4. Goals should need not be set jointly to be effective 5. Feedback enhances goal attainment Job design 2 elements The division of an organization’s work among its employees The application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction 2 approaches Traditional Modern Traditional approach to job design Traditional approach “fit people to jobs” Assumes people will gradually adapt to any work situation Job simplification – the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs Stripping down a job to its simplest elements enables workers to focus on doing more of the same task Pros: increases employees efficiency and productivity Cons: repetitive jobs lead to boredom and dissatisfaction Modern approach: Fit jobs to people Assumptions: people are underutilized at work an that they want more variety, challenges, and responsibility Job enlargement (horizontal loading) Increase the number of tasks of similar difficulty a worker must perform o Pro: can increase variety and motivation o Con: positive effects often don’t last Job enrichment (vertical loading) Building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, an advancement o Pro: entrusting employees with tasks of higher difficulty or responsibility usually reserved for managers o Con: may need additional training Job characteristics model A. Five core job characteristics B. Three critical psychological states of an employee C. Work outcomes 5 job characteristics 1. Skill variety – how many different skills does your job 2. Task identity – how many different tasks are required to complete the job 3. Task significance – how many other people are affected by your work 4. Autonomy – how much discretion does your job give you 5. Feedback – how much do you find out about how well you’re doing your job Applying the job characteristics model Diagnose the work environment to see whether a problem exist Job diagnostic survey MPS – motivating potential score Determine whether job redesign is appropriate Low MPS Consider how to redesign the job Reinforcement theory – attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated Behavior modification – the use of reinforcement theory to change human behavior Reinforcement – anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated Law of effect (Edward Thorndike) – Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated and behavior that results in unpleasant outcomes is not likely to be repeated Operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner) – The process of controlling behavior by manipulating it consequences 4 types of reinforcement A. Techniques to strengthen behavior a. Positive reinforcement (applying rewards) i. Use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior b. Negative reinforcement (withholding unpleasantness) i. Removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior B. Techniques to weaken behavior c. Extinction (withholding rewards) i. Withholding or withdrawing positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future d. Punishment (applying negative consequences) ii. Applying negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior Positive reinforcement Reward only exceptionally desirable behavior Do not reward action that they should be expected to do anyway Give rewards as soon as possible Strengthens the connection in employee’s minds Be clear about what behavior is desired Let everyone know what they need to do to earn an award Have different rewards and recognize individual differences Different people respond to different types of rewards so you should provide several options Punish only exceptionally undesirable behavior Administer punishment as soon as possible Be clear about what is undesirable Other considerations for using punishment Administer punishment in private Combine punishment with positive reinforcement (reminding them of the rewards if they improve their behavior) A wage by itself doesn’t give employees much incentive to work Most workers rate having a caring boss higher than they value money Dissatisfaction with the boss is the #1 reason people leave their job Great employees have the following 3 traits: 1. They trust management 2. They take pride in their company 3. They have sense of camaraderie with their colleagues 4 characteristics of the best incentive compensation plans 1. Rewards must be linked to performance and be measurable 2. The rewards must satisfy individual needs 3. The rewards must be agreed on by manager and employees 4. The rewards must be believable and achievable by employees Popular incentive compensation plans Pay for performance (Merit Pay) – bases pay on one’s results Piece rate – employees paid according to how much output they prodce Sales commission – sales reps are paid a percentage of earning the company made from their sales Bonuses – cash awards given to employees who achieve specific performance objectives Profit sharing – the distribution to employees a percentage of the company’s profits Gainsharing – the distribution of savings or “gains” to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity Stock options – certain employees are given the right to buy stock a reduced rate that is able to be sold at a future date Pay for knowledge (skillbased pay) – employees pay is tied to the number of rrelevant skills or academic degrees they earn Nonmonetary ways of motivating employees Nonmonetary needs: The need for worklife balance The need to expand skills The need to matter Nonmonetary motivators Flexible workplace Part time work, flextime, compressed worksheets, job sharing, and telecommunication Thoughtfulness Be nice, increase communication, show interest in their ideas and contributions, reduce criticism, be more forthcoming with praise, write thank you notes offer more breaks, allow employees to socialize. Worklife benefits Offer employees a means o balancing their work and their personal lives Give extra time off, allow alternative scheduling, provide onsite daycare or help with daycare costs, provide domestic partner benefits, maternity/paternity leave, provide technology such as cellphones and laptops for home use Surroundings Create a work environment that is conducive to productivity Cubicles often stifle creativity and morale Organizations are moving to an open office design Skillbuilding and educational opportunities “shadowing” programs that match employees with experienced coworkers from whom they can learn Tuition reimbursement programs Sabbaticals A month to a year of time paid off in which to travel, learn, and pursue personal projects Gives people a chance to recharge themselves Cement their loyalty to the organization