Textbook Chapter One
Textbook Chapter One PSY 1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psychology is a discipline that spans multiple levels of analysis As mentioned in week one it starts at the top that is more cultural to the bottom which is closest related to the brain : social, behavioral, mental, neurological/physiological, neurochemical, molecular Multiply determined: caused by many factors We must be skeptical of single variable explanations of behavior Reciprocal determinism: the fact that we mutually influence each others behavior Individual differences: variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality and behavior Explains why each person responds in different ways to the same objective situation Naïve Realism: ;belief that we see the world precisely as it is Science is a systematic approach to evidence, It begins with empiricism: the premise that knowledge should initially be acquired through observation Scientific theory: explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world Hypothesis: testable prediction derived from a scientific theory Science is a safeguard that protects us against confirmation bias and belief perserverance Confirmation bias: tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny, dismiss or distort evidence that contradicts them Belief perseverance: tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Metaphysical claims: assertions about the world that we cant test e.g. existence of God, the soul, the afterlife Pseudoscience: a set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t. It lacks the safeguards against confirmation bias and belief perseverance that characterizes science Warning Signs: o Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis: an escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect this theory from being disproven e.g. when psychics claim they have ESP but when brought to be tested states that under such tight controls it is not possible o Exaggerated claims o Absence to connectivity to other research o Talk of proof instead of evidence o Lack of review by other scholars Patternicity: the tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli Conspiracy theories are manifestations of patternicity Terror management theory: our awareness of our own inevitable death leaves many of us with an underlying sense of fear Logical fallacies: traps in thinking that can lead to mistaken conclusions Easy to make this mistake as they seem to make intuitive sense Emotional Reasoning Fallacy: error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim o e.g. the idea that day care might have negative emotional effects on children gets me really upset, so I refuse to believe it Bandwagon Fallacy: the error of assuming that a claim is correct just because many people believe it Not me Fallacy: error of believing that we’re immune from errors in thinking that afflict other people Eitheror Fallacy: error of framing a question as though we can only answer it in one of two extreme ways Appeal to authority Fallacy: error of accepting a claim merely because an authority figure endorses it Genetic Fallacy: error of confusing the correctness of a belief with its origins or genesis Argument from antiquity Fallacy: error of assuming that a belief must be valid just because its been around for a long time Argument from adverse consequences fallacy: error of confusing the validity of an idea with its potential realworld consequences Appeal to ignorance Fallacy: error of assuming that a claim must be true because no one has shown it to be false Naturalistic Fallacy: error of inferring a moral judgment from as scientific fact Hasty generalization Fallacy: Error of drawing a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence Circular reasoning Fallacy: error of basing a claim on the same claim reworded in slightly different terms Danger of Pseudoscience: Opportunity cost = what we give up o e.g. searching for proper effective treatment Direct Harm Inability to think scientifically as citizens Scientific Skepticism: approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them Critical thinking: set of skills for evaluating all claims in an openminded and careful fashion 1. Ruling out rival hypothesis o We have to make sure that we do not exclude other plausible explanations for our hypothesis 2. Correlation vs. Causation o Correlation vs. Causation Fallacy: Error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another it must cause the other 3. Falsifiability o Can this claim be disproved? 4. Replicability o Can the results be duplicated? 5. Extraordinary Claims o Is the evidence as strong as the claim? 6. Occam’s Razor o Making sure that the simplest explanation is used to account for the data Introspection: method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences The great theoretical frameworks of Psychology: Structuralism o E.B. Titchener o Uses introspection to identify basic element or structures of experience o Emphasis on the importance of systematic observation to the study of conscious experience Functionalism o William James; influenced by Charles Darwin o To understand the functions or adaptive purposes of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors o Has been absorbed into psychology and continues to influence it indirectly in many ways Behaviorism o Ivan Pavlov; John B. Watson; B. F. Skinner o To uncover the general principles of learning that explain all behaviors; focus is largely on observable behavior o Influential in models of human and animal learning and among the first to focus on need for objective research Cognitivism o Jean Piaget; Ulric Neisser o To examine the role of mental processes on behavior o Influential in many areas such as language, problem solving, concept formation, intelligence, memory and psychotherapy Psychoanalysis o Sigmund Freud o To uncover the role of unconscious psychological processes and early life experiences in behavior o Understanding that much of our mental processing goes on outside of conscious awareness