Week 10 Notes
Popular in Life 103- Biology of Organisms
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at Colorado State University taught by Tanya Dewey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Life 103- Biology of Organisms in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Week 10 Notes Invertebrates II (Lophotrochozoa) Monophyletic group shared ancestry Paraphyletic group exclude a descendent Polyphyletic group includes group of different ancestors Clade monophyletic group I-Clicker question: Where did triploblastic tissue arise? Hermichordata Where did deuterostome development arise? Deuterstomia Where did bilateral symmetry arise? Bilateria 3 Major clades of Bilateria 1. Deuterstomia 2. Lophotrocozoa 3. Ecdysozoa Lophotrocozoa -united by molecular characters -most divers body plans -largest number of phyla 1. Platyhelminthes- flat worms a. Acoelomate b. Flat bodies for a greater surface area to volume ration c. Gas exchange across body surface d. Gastrovascular cavity (not a tube) e. Majority are parasitic, some are free-living f. Have more than one host g. Definitive host used for sexual reproduction h. Intermediate hosts where larvae grow 2. Mollusca a. More than 85,000 species b. Second to arthropods c. Soft body and hardened shell of calcium carbonate d. Shared body plan e. Radula f. 80% are snails and slugs g. Cephalopods are neurologically advanced h. Some are toxic i. Most endangered group 3. Gastropods a. Snails and slugs b. Marine, fresh water, terrestrial c. Mantle what secretes calcium carbonate 4. Bivalves a. Clams, mussels, oysters b. Marine and freshwater c. Have 2 shells d. Foot helps them move and keep in place 5. Cephalopods a. Octopus, squid, nautilus b. Camouflage and chromophores c. Reduced mantle d. Advanced eye, behavior, and intelligence 6. Mollusks a. Most endangered b. Recently discovered that they make the world’s strongest material c. Have visceral, mass and foot Annelida (segmented worms) -chaetae bristles mad of chitin -predators 1. Marine worms a. Errantians-> mobile predators b. Sedentarians sessile 2. Leeches a. Secrete anesthetics and hirudin 3. Earth worms a. Move nutrients and aerate soil b. Common in North America but aren’t native Invertebrates III Exdysozoa Loveifera Priapula Nematoda Arthropods Ecdysozoa most diverse animal group -external covering -ecdysis molt with growth 1. Nematoda-round worms a. 15,000 species b. Important in decomposition c. Motile d. Cdenorhaloditis elgans i. 1 mm long, simple ii. 959 cells, all mapped used in research 2. Arthropoda a. Most diverse b. Most successful of all animal phyla Myriapods -most ancient lineage -may have been the first to colonize land Trilobites -extinct Crustaceans and insects -insects are a group within Crustacea Characteristics of Arthropod -segmented body abdomen, thorax, head/ cephalon -spiders the head and thorax are compined -they have paired limbs -hardened exo-skeleton and chitin. Exo-skeleton also acts as muscle attachment -jointed appendages -open circulatory system -have a heart, but don't have vessels -hemolymph circulates through hemocoel Insects are most divers -most are beetles Chelicerata (spiders, mites, scorpions) -chelicerae feeding appendages. Some are modified to inject venom -cephalothorax -abdomen -4 pairs of walking legs -pedipalps modified limbs with several function on the cephalothrax Crustacea (crabs, shrimp, copepods, barnacles, amphipods etc) -many pairs of walking legs -antennae evidence that insects and crustacea are related -cephalon, thorax, abdomen -most numerous animals on Earth -highly variable characteristics Barnacles -evolutionary constraints -sessile -modified legs filter feed -sexually reproduce through intermittent organ Insecta (beetles, butterflies, ants, bees, cockroaches, flies etc) -abdomen, thorax, head -antennae -wings for true fligh -3 pairs of walking legs -metamorphosis Insect open circulation -have a heart and body cavity -vessels feed fluid through the body -hemolymph carry nutrients -Tracheae and tracheoles -holes on the outside of the body where oxygen enters -oxygen enters the tracheae pathways that travel through the body -Oxygen moves via diffusionreason why insects are small -Giant Weta is the biggest living insect Insects used to be bigger for the oxygen content of the air changed Vertebrates I (Chordate Evolution to amniotes) Deuterstomia -Echinodermata -Hemichordata -Chordata Echinodrms -stargish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers -7,000 species Chordates -65,000 species -notochord- rod in embryo becomes spine in vertebrates -dorsal hollow nerve cord- cephize head region -pharyngeal slits elements that support the gills that eventually become jaws -post and anal tail anus comes before the tail Amniotes -Reptiles -Mammalia Tetrapods -Amphibia -Reptile -Mammalia Cephalochordata -simple -bury itself in sediment -use mouth to feed -does have the ability to move Urochordata -marine -pulls water in and filters the food products -larvae have all charactrisics of chordates Vertebrates -have complex body plan due to the duplication of Hox genes -spinal cord surrounds bony vertebrae -notochord disappears in development but is present during the embryonic stage Gnatostomes (jawed mouth) -have jaws -incomplete mineralized skeleton -gene duplication -lateral line system -enhanced smell and vision -jaws arose from support structure for pharyngeal slits Osteichtyes (majority of vertebrates) bony fish -ossified means mineralized -they have a complete ossified endoskeleton -modified lungs Actinopterygii -most diverse of the vertebrate group and ray finned fishes -inhabit all aquatic habits and there are 30,000 species Lobe –Fins (sacropterygii) -lobed fins with bony and muscular support Tetrapods -4 limbs with digits -adults lack gills -vertebrae in neck= head movement -the pelvic girdle is fused to the spine Amphibia -more diverse than mammals -5,000 species of frogs and toads -700 species of salamanders and newts -200 species of caecilians. Also, caecilians can lactate Amniotes -have an amniotic egg that has specialized extraembryonic membranes that are sometimes shelled -ventilate with rib cage Reptilia -diverse -more than 20,000 species -scales composed of keratin -shelled eggs on land -internal fertilization -ectothermic and endothermic Birds, snakes, etc Vertebrates II: Mammals and metabolic trade-offs Amniotes -Reptilia and Mammalia -have the extraembryonic membrane to prevent eggs from drying out (desiccation) -this gave them the ability to colonize land Majority of reptile lineage are diapsids 3 Major groups of Mammals (also evolved froma therapsid ancestor) 1. Monotremes a. 5 species b. Don’t have nipples, lactate by sweating c. Platypuses 2. Marsupials a. Short gestation. b. Baby is born in early development c. 300 species d. Kangaroos and opossum 3. Eutherental/ Placenta a. Majority of development in gestation b. 5,000 species Most mammals are rodents and ¼ of mammal diversity comes from bats Characteristics of Mammalia -hair -no other animal group has hair -made of kertin -complex anatomy -found on all mammals in some point of their development -vibrissae whiskers -young a fed milk from modified sweat glands -exceptions are that it is found in pigeons and caecilians -large amounts of parental investment in young -gestation is more expensive than gestation