SPHU 1020 notes of week 3.28.16
SPHU 1020 notes of week 3.28.16 SPHU 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPHU 1020 at Tulane University taught by Dickey-Cropley, Lorelei in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Cell, Individual & The Community in Public Health at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Week of 3.28.16 Foodborne and Waterborne Infection: Noroviruses ● Many different strains norwalk and norwalklike viruses ● Easy to transmit: ID<10 viral particles ● Can persist to be shed after recovery ● Outbreaks associated with cruise ships, food service workers, hospitals, etc. ● Outbreak in Katrina evacuees in Houston’s Reliant Park Rotaviruses ● About 200,000 ER visits a year in the US ● Very common cause of diarrhea, especially in young children ● S/S flulike symptoms before diarrhea (fever, cough, and vomiting) watery or semiliquid stools typically look like yogurt mixed in water ○ Mild to moderate dehydration ○ Fever moderate grade ● Easy to transmit ● Low lethality ● Vaccines are available Hepatitis A ● Globally ~1.4 million cases of hepatitis A yearly ● Transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food/ water, or direct contact with an infectious person ● Assoc. With lack of safe water and poor sanitation ● Epidemics can cause significant economic loss ○ Impact on food establishment identifid with the virus ● S/S fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, darkcolored urine and jaundice ○ Appx 50% of cases subclinical ○ Not everyone shows s/s ● Recovery usually complete without chronic infection ○ Can take weeks/ months for people to return to ordinary life ● Rarely fatal, but s/s debilitating and fulminant hepatitis Hepatitis E ● Similar to Hep A ● Yearly, ~20 million hep E infections, over 3 million acute cases, 56,000 hepatitis Erelated virus ● Transmitted via fecaloral route, esp. Contaminated water ● Uncommon in US; found worldwide, prevalence highest in East and South Asia ● China produced and licensed the first vaccine, not yet approved Food and WBD’s caused by protozoans Giardiasis ● One of the most common waterborne diseases in US ● Cysts spread by human, wild mammal, and bird reservoirs ● Persistent in environment; cyst survives for months ● Very common cause of diarrhea ● Destroys the intestinal villus ● Transmission by swallowing cysts in contaminated streams, lakes, even swimming pools, etec. Transmitted via fecaloral route ○ Resistance to chlorine, and ID of just 10 cysts, makes control difficult ● S/S nonbloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, gas ● Not life threatening but can last 26 weeks ○ Trophozoites attach to intestinal lining by sucking disks ○ Destroys the intestinal villus ○ Decreases nutritional uptake ○ Promotes diarrhea, decreases nutritional uptake ○ Tx Metronidazole Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases: Cryptosporidiosis ● 1993 epidemic in Milwaukee sickened ~400,000 (~100 deaths) ● Variety of mammal, bird, and reptile reservoirs ○ Correlation with areas with dairy farming ● transmission : oocysts enter water in fecal material and are ingested ○ Oocysts undergo excystation to sporozoites, which penetrate intestinal cells and multiply ● Oocysts resistant to chlorine, and ID is only 10 oocysts ● S/S: severe and longlasting diarrhea, fever, nausea, abdominal pain ● Usually selflimiting; tx options are very limited ● Lifethreatening in those with AIDS or immunocompromised Amebiasis ● Primarily caused by Entamoeba histolytica ● Occurs worldwide ○ In US, most prevalent in immigrants from undeveloped countries, travelers, institutions with poor sanitation, etc. ● Found in water; fruits and vegetables washed in contaminated water ● Chlorination may fail to kill cysts ● One of the most common parasitic diseases with 10% mortality rate ● S/S 90% asymptomatic or have mild diarrhea and stomach pain ○ Severe dysentery due to intestinal damage (ulcers) Toxoplasmosis ● A worldwide zoonosis, caused by nonmotile protozoan Toxoplasma gondii ● Domestic and wild cats primary reservoirs/host ● Transmission: accidental ingestion of oocysts in cat feces; eating raw or undercooked meats ● Most cases asymptomatic or produce only mild s/s, including sore throat, low grade fever, and lymph node enlargement ● Dangerous for pregnant women!!! ○ Can infect fetus, cause stillbirth, neonatal death, or serious fatal defects (brain damage, convulsions, blindness) ○ Pregnant womenavoid cat litter and contact with cats ● Also in immunocompromised may be a rapidly fatal diseases due to massive invasion of the brain ● Tx: rx may be needed for as long as a year That stray cat walking around campus? I just see a ball of toxoplasmosis and species eradication Leptospira: urine trouble now ● Zoonotic disease/ domestic animals ● Problem in tropical countries, rare in US ● Responds to antibiotics ○ If untreated can infect several organs >death ○ Flulike symptoms: high fever, chills, H/A, muscle aches ● Humans infected from exposure to water contaminated with infected animal urine ○ Animal handlers at risk Friday: Presentation on the Zika Virus ● Obstetric violence in Brazil ● Focus on Maternal and Child Health ○ Brazil has the second best health system in the world because they have universal health care, and yet the MCH is failing ○ Most complications arise from unnecessary csections ● The Zika Virus is blown out of proportion by the media. Public Health officials are trying to avoid another Ebolalike outbreak of the Zika virus (everyone sick is sequestered and untreated, allowing the virus to spread further). Issues like these arise when there is fear and unwillingness to combat the outbreak.
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