Influencing Others and Deception Imbody Com 250
Influencing Others and Deception Imbody Com 250 COM 250
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan Mowery on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 250 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Imbody in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Nonverbal Communication 10/27/2015 ▯ Influencing Others ▯ Persuasion: Persuasion is trying to affect attitudinal or behavioral change through rhetorical means. In public speaking we call it oration. ▯ ▯ Rhetoric (n) ▯ The art of speaking or writing effectively. (Webster’s Definition) ▯ ▯ According to Aristotle, rhetoric is “the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.” ▯ He described three main forms of rhetoric or Proofs: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. ▯ ▯ Ethos ▯ Ethos is appeal based on the character of the speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on the reputation of the author. ▯ ▯ Logos ▯ Logos is appeal based on logic or reason. Documents distributed by companies or corporations are logos-driven. Scholarly documents are also often logos-driven. ▯ ▯ Pathos ▯ Pathos is appeal based on emotion. Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven. ▯ ▯ The Direct Effects Model of Immediacy ▯ Increases in nonverbal immediacy substantially enhance a persuader’s chance of gaining compliance. ▯ ▯ Gaze and Persuasion ▯ When we have some kind of meaningful eye contact, interactants are more likely to accept a message and be persuaded. ▯ ▯ Touch and Persuasion ▯ People waiting tables tend to get more/larger tips when a light touch is applied to customers. ▯ ▯ Touch and Gaze ▯ When the two are used in unison, compliance is increased even more. ▯ ▯ Vocal Cues and Persuasion ▯ Vocal immediacy cues, like a pleasant tone of voice and fast delivery, earn greater compliance. Specifically for those skilled at decoding NV cues, women. ▯ ▯ Physical Appearance and Persuasion ▯ Dress has a lot of influence from those seeking compliance. Uniforms, in general, communicate authority. The more formal or high-status the clothing, the greater the compliance rate obtained. ▯ ▯ Example: Sports Night ▯ ▯ 11/3/2015 ▯ ▯ Explaining the Direct Effects Model ▯ Immediacy effects have a direct effect on compliance. ▯ Why? – Immediacy behaviors communicate power, attention, warmth, and liking. ▯ ▯ Power ▯ The cues may increase perceptions of trustworthiness and dynamism which can lead to greater credibility. ▯ ▯ Attention ▯ There must be attention before there can be persuasion. It is hard to avoid a person displaying immediacy cues. ▯ ▯ Warmth ▯ It is a basic social emotion. These feelings are linked with intimacy, attachment, bondedness and emotional connectedness. ▯ ▯ Liking ▯ Immediacy behaviors tend to lead to more persuasive outcomes due to the fact that we feel the one persuading may like us. ▯ ▯ Expectancy Violations Theory ▯ This theory attempts to explain the persuasive impact of immediacy behavior. ▯ ▯ Those seen as high-reward or attractive are more persuasive at close distances than those seen as unattractive. ▯ Further, those seen as attractive are more persuasive at most any distance. ▯ ▯ The evidence suggests that rewarding individuals should stand closer or farther than the normative interaction distance for maximal persuasive effects. ▯ ▯ 30 Rock episode ▯ ▯ Communication Accommodation Theory ▯ Listeners perceive speech similar to their own to be more attractive, pleasant, and intelligible than others’. ▯ ▯ Speakers adjust their speaking cycle to model that of other interactants, often without knowing that they are accommodating. ▯ ▯ However, more immediacy is probably more important than more accommodation. ▯ The combination of the two is more effective. ▯ ▯ Physical Attraction Theories ▯ There are several theories that can explain the High- Reward individual ▯ ▯ The Halo Effect- A single positive characteristic dominates other evaluations of a person. More attention is paid to attractive people because they are simply more pleasant to observe. Third, it is reinforcing to interact with attractive people. ▯ Fourth, culturally, we think of good looking as generally “good.” Detection The ability to hide or mask one’s true feelings and opinions is actually an essential part of being a competent communicator, though inept or unethical deceptions are considered incompetent. Deception must be appropriate for situation (within context). Ex: Alex Rodrigues taking steroids. Definition A conscious, intentional behavior committed with full knowledge that the information is untrue. Zuckerman, DePaulo, and Rosenthal An intentional act that fosters in another person a belief or understanding which the deceiver considers false. Knapp and Comadena (1979) Deception as the conscious alteration of information a person believes to be true in order to significantly change another’s perceptions from what the deceiver thought they would be without alteration. Most deceptive acts fall into SIX categories 1. Fictions: exaggerations. 2. Playings: teasing, playing hoaxes. 3. Lies: fibbing, telling untruths. 4. Crimes: entrapping, covering up. 5. Masks: backstabbing, evading. 6. Unlies: being two-faced, concealing. ▯ Deception Detection ▯ Three important principles ▯ ▯ 1. No foolproof means of detection deception through nonverbal behavior exists now or is likely to exist in the future. ▯ 2. Some commonalities in deception behavior can aid in its detection. ▯ 3. A complex mixture of unconscious and strategic processes produce subtle changes in behavior during deceptive communication. ▯ ▯ Detection of deceptive behavior: ▯ A cross-cultural test, Al-Sem…. ▯ ▯ When it all breaks down: ▯ Leaks and the causes of leaks ▯ ▯ During deception there are changes in the body. There are five things that cause to occur. ▯ ▯ 1. Arousal: if arousal goes beyond normal levels it has the tendency to turn into anxiety. ▯ 2. Anxiety: the fear of being caught increases self-adaptors to reduce anxiety. ▯ 3. Negative Affect: typically you lie to those you like less. So, when lying, negativity tends to flow. ▯ 4. Cognitive Difficulty: lying is hard and can lead to poor conversational performance. ▯ 5. Duping Delight: some liars like to lie, a lot. This euphoric feeling and display can give them away. ▯