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Psych 360: Social motivation and Conflict

by: Winny Lu

Psych 360: Social motivation and Conflict Psych 360

Marketplace > University of Maryland Baltimore > Psychlogy > Psych 360 > Psych 360 Social motivation and Conflict
Winny Lu

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These notes cover what was discussed in class on April 7 about Social Motivation and Conflicts.
Motivational Psychology
Bernard Rabin
Class Notes
Psychology, social motivation, conflicts
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Winny Lu on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Maryland Baltimore taught by Bernard Rabin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Motivational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland Baltimore.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
1 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 Social Motivation (Apr.07.2016) I. Introduction a. Social motive: motives that involve an interaction between organisms b. Are they innate or learned? II. Innate or learned a. Innate i. Darwin: Social instincts 1. Taking pleasure in the society of a group and performing services for them ii. William James 1. Sociability, love, jealousy and imitation b. Learned i. Derived motivation 1. Social motivation 2. Mother-infant bond III. Social Motive as Derived Motives: Freud a. Boys i. Mother necessary for the gratification of instincts ii. Give rise to the Oedipal Conflict iii. Resolve: identify with father b. Girls i. Cannot resolve Electra conflict because the lack of motivation means the lack of motivation ii. Come to realize that their mother has obtained a surrogate penis by marrying their father 1. Goal: to get married to obtain a surrogate penis or to have a son iii. Resolve: Identify with mother c. Social motivation is derived from the relationship between the mother and the child i. Ex: boys 1. According to Freud: a. Boys want to marry their mother (Oedipal Conflict) b. But ends up identifying with the father in fear of castration ii. Ex: girls 1. According to Freud: a. Views mother as successful in getting a penis from marrying their father 2 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 b. Ends up adopting the behavior of the mother in order to get a penis themselves IV. Social Motives as Derived Motives: Dollard and Miller a. Transforms Freudian Theory to learning theory b. Mother is a source of “primary drive” reduction c. Mother becomes a secondary reinforcer i. The child receives food every time they see their mother, as a result the mother becomes associated with food. ii. As a secondary reinforcer 1. Mother changes behavior in an socially acceptable directions d. This idea is then generalized to the father and then to the wider community e. Social motivation derives from mother-infant relationship i. no mother-infant relationship = no motivation V. Harlow: Mother Love a. Baby monkeys are removed from their mother when they were born b. Surrogate mothers were placed in separate cubicles and attached to monkey’s cage c. 8 infant monkeys assigned to 2 groups i. Group 1: cloth mother with feeder 1. Cloth mother: a. Smooth wooden body b. Covered in sponge rubber and ii. Group 2: wire mother with feeder 1. Wire mother: a. Made out of wire mesh b. Considered by Harlow to provide no contact comfort d. Time spent with each mother was recorded for 5 months e. Results: i. After the first few days, all the monkeys were spending nearly all their time each day on the cloth mother ii. Monkeys being fed by wire mother only left the cloth mother for a short time to get food 1. if wire mother has food: Goes to the wire mother for food and then immediately go back to the cloth mother iii. Regardless of where the monkeys were fed (food on wire mother or cloth mother) 1. The monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother than the wire mother iv. This demonstrated the importance of contact comfort. 3 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 VI. Harlow: Follow-up a. After six months of being in contact with the surrogate mothers (wire/ cloth mother) Harlow wanted to see if attachments were formed after periods of separation i. Placed monkeys in small unfamiliar room with various objects ii. Results: 1. Monkeys with cloth mother: a. Cloth mother present (security) : the monkey will go immediately to the cloth mother, play with the objects and then go back to the cloth mother i. Motherplaymother b. Cloth mother not present ( no security) : the monkeys will freeze with fear, start crying, crouching and thumb sucking i. No mother = No play 2. Monkeys with the wire mother: a. Regardless of whether the wire mother is present or not (security or no security) the monkeys will act the same VII. Social Motivation: Harlow a. The need for contact comfort is innate i. Not related to feeding ii. Not secondary b. It is only for the first step i. Another step is needed in order for social motivation to develop properly c. Living as a part of a social group i. Peer group interactions are necessary 1. Harlow a. Placed female and neo-natal males monkeys in a room b. The female was in heat c. Chased after the males i. The males did not know why the female was chasing him d. Sets up a different room with a small door to allow the infant monkeys to come and interact with other monkeys ( mothers could not enter) i. The monkeys then learned appropriate social behavior d. Two staged process i. Contact comfort (1) 4 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 ii. Living as a part of a social group (2) 1. Acquire behaviors appropriate to the group e. Distinction between derived and learned motives i. Contact comfort is innate ii. Social motives are learned but not derived 1. Example: a. In LA, there is a law that the pedestrians have the right of way i. People go off the curb without lookingexpecting the cars to stop BUT!! b. In NY, there is no law about pedestrians having the right of way i. People go off curb without looking expect to get hit by a car f. If the need for contact comfort has not been satisfied then the animals are overly aggressive and show poor social adjustment i. No Contact comfort = high aggression and low social judgement VIII. Harlow: Mothering a. When surrogate-reared females gave birth, they did not care for their infants i. Pushed them away ii. Did not care for them iii. Similar to how their surrogate mothers were to them b. Mothering is a learned behavior i. One of the indicators of parenting is how their mothers treated them IX. Attachment theory: Evolutionary Psychology (Bowlby,1969) a. Baby is releasing stimulus eliciting care-taking responses from adults b. Genetic programming i. The baby needs the adult to survive ii. The adults must respond in order to have offspring ( increased fitness in evolutionary terms) c. Passing of signals (crying/smiling) back and forth leads to attachment X. Attachment theory: Evolutionary Psychology (Buck,1999) a. Adults need to protect and succor child b. Infants evolved mechanisms to bond with adults i. Prosocial affects system (crying/hugging/smiling) 5 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 ii. Basis for attachment c. Lead to two fundamental social motives i. Need to follow and exceed expectation ii. Need to be loved (contact comfort) XI. Human Attachment: Ainsworth a. Secure attachment style i. Mother is responsive to the child’s need for contact ii. Child: 1. self-confident 2. independent iii. Adult: 1. High job satisfaction 2. Low fear and anxiety about performance 3. More intrinsically motivated a. More inclined to seek social support b. Anxious/Ambivalent style i. Mother inconsistent in meeting contact needs ii. Child: 1. Inhibited 2. Dependent 3. Lacking self confidence iii. Adult: 1. Lower job satisfaction 2. Higher fear and anxiety about performance 3. Treat work largely as a search for approval c. Avoidant Style i. Mothers avoid/ reject need for contact ii. Child: 1. Exploratory behavior designed to escape mother XII. Adult attachment: Positive Incentive (Beck, 2004) a. Assistance i. Reinforce affiliation by receiving assistance in achieving goals b. Stimulation 6 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 i. Stimulus variation is a source of arousal c. Information i. Information is reinforcing d. Self- evaluation i. The basis for social comparisons e. Freedom from Internal Constraints Conflict I. Conflict a. Conflict: two incompatible responses i. Making one response precludes making the other 1. Making one response means one cannot make the other II. Assumptions a. Gradients of approach and avoidance i. Closer to the positive goal stronger motivation to approach ii. Closer to the aversive goal  stronger motivation to avoid iii. Goal Gradient Distance to goal iv. Avoidance gradient is steeper than approach gradient 1. the motivation to avoid a negative goal changes more rapidly than to approach a positive goal v. Gradients vary as a function of the intensity of the underlying motivation 1. Motivation to approach = function of intensity of underlying motivation a. Example: grasshoppers as food i. High hunger = high motivation to approach as food vi. The stronger of the two incompatible responses will occur III. Conflicts: Approach-Approach a. two positive incompatible responses 7 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 Center b. c. Once off the center i. One motivation increases while the other one decreases d. Resolution: can choose one and the conflict will be resolved IV. Conflicts: Avoidance- Avoidance a. two negative incompatible responses b. c. Example: Would one prefer to be roasted alive or boiled alive? i. Both negative and high in avoidance ii. If one chooses to be roasted, as one is getting roasted  “being boiled might actually be better” iii. Switch to boiled, as one is getting boiled  “being roasted might actually be better” iv. As one gets farther from the point of minimal aversive stimulation the higher the motivation to avoid would be d. Point of Minimal Aversive Stimulation is the ideal situation e. Resolution: outside intervention V. Conflicts: Approach-Avoidance a. One negative and one positive incompatible response 8 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 b. c. d. At first it seems as if it is positive (high approach motivation) however, the negative (high avoidance motivation) comes to play a role later e. Vesselation Zone: the behavior around the conflict zone i. Example: rats gets shocked as they bar press for food 1. Attempts again and gets shocked again 2. Afterwards the rat scoots closer and closer to the bar press because of the food (positive) and then stops and retreats (negative) f. Resolution: i. In this situation, there is no escape or resolution ii. BUT!! iii. Once motivation is changed (ex: hunger) the motivation to approach will be higher than the motivation to avoid iv. v. 9 PSYC360 Dr. Rabin Apr.07.2016 vi. There are no more conflict zone 1. Example: If the rat gets hungry enough then the rat will go up and bar press VI. Conflict: Double Approach- Avoidance a. b. c. Example: Jaguar vs Volvo i. Jaguar 1. Admiring glances from friends (+) 2. Not safe for baby car seat (-) ii. Volvo 1. Safe for baby car seat (+) 2. No admiring glances (-) d. Resolution: go back to single approach avoidance by utilizing the values i. Example: friends more important? Or safety more important? Possible Test Question: According to Miller’s analysis of conflict, approach and avoidance gradients can be distinguished on the grounds that________ Avoidance gradient is steeper than approach gradients.


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