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chapter 2 notes

by: Gabriela Saint-Louis

chapter 2 notes Psych 2101

Marketplace > Psychlogy > Psych 2101 > chapter 2 notes
Gabriela Saint-Louis
GPA 3.04
Research Methods
Prof. Rutz

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Research Methods
Prof. Rutz
One Day of Notes
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Saturday January 31, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to Psych 2101 at a university taught by Prof. Rutz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 617 views.


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Date Created: 01/31/15
Chapter 2 Where to Start Learning Objectives Discuss how a hypothesis differs from a prediction describe the different sources of ideas for research including common sense observation theories past research and practical problems identify the two functions of a theory summarize the fundamentals of conducting library research in psychology including the use of PsycthFO summarize the information included in the abstract introduction method results and discussion sections of research articles Research Questions Hypothesis and Predictions Researchers use research questions to identify and describe the broad topic that they are investigating i a good research question identi es the topic of inquiry speci cally enough so that hypotheses and predictions can be made Hypotheses are more speci c versions of research ques ons i directly testable whereas a research questions may not be ii tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it Prediction a guess at the outcome of a hypothesis i if a prediction is con rmed by the results of the study the hypothesis is supported ii if the prediction is not con rmed the researcher will either reject the hypothesis or conduct further research using different methods to study the hypothesis Relationships among research questions hypotheses and predictions ex Term De nitionj Example Research Questionlja description of the broad topic of study Are there differences amont groups in terms of cell phone use while driving HypothesisD Tentative idea or questionD Do males and females differ in their use of cell phones while driving PredictionD A deliberate guess at the answer to the hypothesislj Females are more likely to use a cell phone while driving Who we study Terminology the use of either participants or subjects are used when describing humans who take part in psychological research publication Manual of the American Psychological Association respondents and informants i respondents are individuals who take part in survey research ii lnformants are the people who help researchers understand the dynamics of particular cultural and organizational settings Sources of Ideas there are ve sources of ideas i common sense the things we all believe to be true opposites attract etc testing a commonsense idea can be valuable because such notions do not always turn out to be correct i Research may show that the real world is much more complicated than our commonsense ideas would haveit ii observation of the world around us The curiosity sparked by your observations and experiences can lead you to ask questions about all sorts of phenomena drive students to rst research project can lead to an academic career Serendipity sometimes the most interesting discoveries are the result of accident or sheer luck ex pavlov did not set out to discover classical conditioning iii theories theory consists of a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon ideas from a coherent and logically consistent structure that serves two important functions i Theories organize and explain if a variety of speci c facts or descriptions of beha vior ii Theories generate new knowledge by focusing our thinking so that we notice new aspects of behavior Guide our observations of the world iv past research Becoming familiar with a body of research on a topic is perhaps the best way to generate ideas for new research As you become familiar with the research literature on a topic you may see inconsistencies in research results that need to be investigated or you may want to study alternative explanations for the results Also what you know about one research area often can be successfully applied to another research area v practical problems Research is also stimulated by practical problems that can have immediate applications i ex researchers have guided public policy by conducting research on obesity and eating disorders as well as other social and health issues Exploring Past Research a review of past studies will help the researcher clarify the idea and design of the study thus it is important to know how to search the literature on a topic and how to read research reports in professional journals The Nature ofjournals i Researchers publish the results of their investigations into journals ii After a research project has been completed the study is written as a report which then may be submitted to the editor of an appropriate journal editor solicits reviews from other scientists in the same eld and then decides whether the report is to be accepted for publication Online Scholarly Research Databases PsyclNFO i psychological Abstracts or psych Abstracts ii abstracts are brief summaries of articles in psychology and related disciplines indexed by topic area kept in a data base called PsyclNFO Evaluating Web Information is the site associated with a major educational institution or research organization a site sponsored by a single individual or an organization with a clear bias should be viewed with skepticism is information provided on the people who are responsible for the site can you check on the credentials of these individuals si the information current do links from the site lead to legitimate organizations Literature Reviews Articles that summarize the research in a particular area when conducting a search you might want to focus on nding review articles adding quotreviewquot as a search term in the title of the article will generate review articles in your results Anatomy of a Research Article Abstract introduction that explains the problem under investigation and the speci c hypotheses being tested method results i Summary of the research report and typically runs no more than 120 works in length Introduction researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated i description of past research and theories relevant to the problem ii speci c expectations of the researcher are noted often as formal hypotheses iii introduce the research in a logical format that shows how past research and theory are connected to the current research problem and the expected results Method divided into several subsections i First subsection sometimes presents an overview of the design to prepare the reader for the material that follows ii Next subsection describes the characteristics of the participants iii another subsection details the procedure used in the study Results researcher presents the ndings usually in three ways i description in narrative form ii results are described in statistical language iii material is often depicted in tables and graphs Discussion researcher reviews the research from various perspectives i do the results support the hypothesis if so author should give all possible explanations for the results an discuss why one explanation is superior to another if not author should suggest potential reasons Study Terms 1 2 we 9 Abstract a summary of the research report and typically runs no more than 120 words Discussion section researcher reviews the research from various perspectives Hypothesis tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it more speci c than a research question Introduction section outline of the problem that has been investigated description of past research and theories relevant to the problem Literature Review articles that summarize the research in a particular area Method Section see page 45 Prediction a guess at the outcome of a hypothesis psycINFO a computer data base containing psychological Abstracts or psych abstracts Research Question used by researchers to identify and describe the broad topic that they are investigating 10Results section presentation of ndings in 3 ways narrative form statistical languagecharts 115cience Citation Index SCI and Social Sciences Citation index SSCI search source usually accessed with social sciences citation index using the web ofscience computer database allows you to search through citation information such as the name of the author or article title a SCI includes disciplines such as biology chemistry biomedicine and pharmacology b SSCI includes social and behavioral sciences such as sociology and criminal justice c use of quotkey article method 12Theory consists of a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon 13 Web of Science computer database Review Questions What is a hypothesis what is the distinction between a hypothesis and a prediction 0 a hypothesis is a tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it a prediction is a guess at the outcome of a hypothesis What are the two functions of a theory organize and explain a variety of speci c factors or descriptions of behavior 0 generate new knowledge by focusing thinking so that we notice new aspects of behavior theories guide our observations of the world Describe the difference in the way that past research is found when you use PsyclNFO vs the quotkey article quot method of the SCI55C web of science what information does the researcher communicate in each of the sections of a research article 0 4 different sections of a research article i abstract in an abstract the researcher proves a summary of the research report it includes info about the hypothesis the procedure and the broad pattern of results ii Introduction researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated past research and theories relevant to the problem are described in detail here iii Method section divided into subsections describing overview of the design characteristics of the participants details of the procedure used in the study iv Results researcher resents the ndings by way of narrative form statistical language and tablesgraphs v Discussion researcher reviews the research from various perspectives


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