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by: Sophie Stella

physnotesweek6.pdf PHYS 104-01

Sophie Stella

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Notes for March 7-March 12 in PHYS 104: Astronomy with Dr. Ruch.
Dr. Ruch
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Stella on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 104-01 at University of St. Thomas taught by Dr. Ruch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Astronomy in Astronomy at University of St. Thomas.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
PHYS 104: Astronomy Week 6 Course Notes, 3/7 – 3/12 Definitions Terrestrial Planet: Planets composed mainly of rocks and iron. Jovian Planet: Planets composed mainly of hydrogen gas, with a rock and iron core. Dwarf Planets: Planets composed mainly of ices, with a rock and iron core. Asteroid Belt: Agroup of asteroids orbiting the sun, composed mainly of rock and iron. It is likely a failed terrestrial planet. Comet: Aball of rock, ice, and iron orbiting the sun. Kuiper Belt: An asteroid belt outside the orbits of the planets, made from leftover debris from a Jovian planet. Angular Momentum: Always conserved. Momentum of a spinning object will increase if the radius decreases. Differentiation: Terrestrial planets form closer to the sun, and Jovian planets form further away. Condensation: The act of changing from the gaseous state to the liquid state, or liquid to solid. Condensation Temperature: Low for icy/hydrogen compounds, and high for rocks and metals. Extra Solar Planets: Planets outside the sun's solar system. Iron Line: The point in the solar system where iron is able to condense. Rock line: The point in the solar system where roch is able to condense. Frost Line: The point in the solar system where ices begin to condense. Escape Velocity: The velocity an object needs in order to escape the gravitational pull of another object. VII. Basic Components of the Solar System A. The basic components are terrestrial planets, jovian planets, dwarf planets, the sun, comets, asteroids, and dust. These are composed of Hydrogen (98%), Ice (1.4%), rock (.4%), and iron (.2%). 1. Terrestrial planets are smaller than jovian planets but bigger than dwarf planets. a. The terrestrial planets (by size) are Earth, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. 2. Pluto is a dwarf planet, being smaller than the other planets and being composed of ice, rock, and iron. 3. Rocky objects in the solar system account for less than 1% of the total mass. 4. Gassy (Jovian) planets, by size, are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. a. Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. It is about 11 Earth diameters, and accounts for about 71% of the mass of the solar system (not including the sun). Saturn is approximately 1/3 the size of Jupiter. 5. The Sun contains 99.87% of the mass of the solar system B. The planets orbit in mostly circular coplanar orbits around the sun. (exception: Pluto) C. The planets rotate mostly in the same direction on their axis (around their centers of mass). (exception: Uranus) D. The planets' rotational axis are all aligned. (exception: Uranus) E. The orbit of objects in the asteroid belt and Kuiper belt tend to be more elliptical. F. The planets' rotation axis are roughly perpendicular to the plane of orbit. VIII. Planetary Formation A. Aformation scenario must answer: 1. Origins of the orderly motion. 2. differentiation of material. 3. Rubble 4. Exceptions B. The Close Encounter Theory: 1. The sun encountered another star at some point, and their gravity pulled gas from each other, which formed planets. 2. Problems with the Close Encounter Theory a. Encounters are rare b. it is hard to get stable orbits when this is modeled in a computer. c. it is nearly impossible to get a well-ordered and differentiated solar system. C. The Nebular Theory: 1. Acloud of interstellar gas began to collapse due to its' own gravity, and as it collapses, it conserves angular momentum and begins to spin faster. As the density increases, collisions between particles cause it to flatten into a disk. High densities in the center are what formed the sun. a. Pressure is related to temperature, so if the temperature goes up, so does the pressure. The gas in this theory was too cold, so the pressure wend down and the nebula collapsed. b. This theory explains why the planets are aligned in approximately the same plane, and why they are orbiting in the same direction. c. Light (not-condensed) compounds require lower temperatures to collapse, and heavy compounds condense at higher temperatures. i. The disk temperature also decreases with the length of the radius (hot close to the sun, cold further out). D. Rebel Particles 1. Aparticle entering a stream of other particles moving in another direction will have its velocity modified by collisions. 2. Aparticle attracted towards a heavy sheet of gas will repeatedly fall through it, losing energy each time, and eventually stop in the center of the sheet. 3. Rebel particles in a collapsing system will be attracted to the center of the system, but will also be pulled outward due to centripital force. E. Terrestrial planets are formed closer to the sun, while Jovian planets form further away. 1. This is because Terrestrial planets form closer to the sun than the frost line. Only rocks and Iron are able to condense before this line. 2. Jovian planets are formed outside the frost line, allowing them to contain condensed ices as well as rocks and iron. 3. Terrestrial Planets have no hydrogen in their atmosphere because hydrogen is light and terrestrial planets are warm (explained in the next point). F. Holding an atmosphere 1. Kinetic energy involves both mass and velocity. a. If they have the same velocity, but different masses, the more massive object carries more kinetic energy. 2. Temperature is based on the average kinetic energy. Higher temperature = higher kinetic energy. a. More dense objects with the same temperature as less dense objects will have a lower velocity. 3. If an object has a high enough velocity, it can escape another object's gravitational pull. a. Hydrogen exceeds the escape velocity of the Terrestrial planets.


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