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Science of Human Nutrition Week 10 notes

by: Layne Henwood

Science of Human Nutrition Week 10 notes 23511

Marketplace > Kent State University > Nutrition and Food Sciences > 23511 > Science of Human Nutrition Week 10 notes
Layne Henwood
GPA 3.4

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Week 10 notes
Science of Human Nutrition
Carmen Blakely-Adams
Class Notes
Science of Human Nutrition
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 23511 at Kent State University taught by Carmen Blakely-Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Proteins Major Functions of Protein in the Body  Structure o Basic structure of tissues, bones, teeth and skin  Catalysis o Enzymes  Movement o Found in muscles, ligaments and tendons  Transport o Movement of substances across cell membranes and within the circulatory system  Communication o Protein hormones and cell-signaling proteins o Hormones made of proteins  Protection o Skin proteins and immune protein o Can develop sores on skin  Regulation of fluid balance o Regulate the distribution of fluid in the body  Regulation of pH o Maintain the pH of the body  Gluconeogenesis o Synthesis of glucose o Production of glucose form a non carbohydrate protein o Do not want this to occur  Happens in malnutrition and starvation  Getting protein from muscle mass Calculations  All healthy people require .8 grams of protein per kilogram  Healthy person o 200 lbs- what are protein needs?  200/2.2=91  91x.8=73 grams of protein o 85 kg- what are protein needs?  85x.8=68 grams of protein  AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges) for protein in 10-35% o How many grams of protein is needed? o 2000 kcals with 15% protein  2000*.15=300  300/4=75 o 1800 kcals with 30% protein  1800*.3=540  540/4=135 o 1200 kcals with 10% protein  1200*.1=120  120/4=30 What are Proteins  Complex molecules o Amino acids  Peptide bonds- how they are linked together  Condensation reaction- how they are developed (water is released) o Nitrogen base o Classification  Number of amino acids linked together  Oligopeptides- smaller units between 2-12 amino acids linked together  Polypeptides- greater than 12 amino acids linked together  Amino acids o 3 common parts  Central carbon bonded to a hydrogen  R-group with determine the characteristic of the protein o Classifications  Essential- 9 amino acids  Coming from the diet  Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine  Nonessential- 11 amino acids  Body can make them  Conditionally essential- 6 amino acids  Normally they are nonessential but something has happened o Transamination  Process of making nonessential amino acids  How?  Body will transfer an amino group (NH2) from one amino acid to another organic compound  Organic compound will not have an amino group in it, compound is called a-keto acid  A-keto acid Are All food proteins equal?  Categorization of food proteins o Complete protein source  Have all of the essential amino acids we require  High in bioavailability, not only do they have it but our bodies can also absorb it  Ex. Poultry, meat, eggs, nuts, beans, dairy products o Incomplete protein sources  Missing one or more essential amino acids  Ex. Plant foods, pasta, grains, fruits, vegetables, cereals o Protein complementation  Having an incomplete matched with a complete protein o Protein quality  High quality protein  Meat, poultry, nuts, dairy products  Low quality protein  Pastas, breads, fruits, vegetables, cereals  GMOs  Change in the DNA to improve the quality of a food, especially protein How are proteins made?  Step 1: cell signaling initiates protein synthesis o Up-regulation  Signals cell to turn on the ability to start making protein o Down-regulation  Signals cell to turn off the ability to start making protein  Step 2: transcription transfers genetic info o Chromosomes and genes  Genes determine what type of amino acids need to be made and their sequence o Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)  Decodes information given by genes, determines translation  Combines with ribosomes  Step 3: Translation produces new peptide o Ribosomes  Translate the information o Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA)  Transports information to cell to make the amino acid How do proteins get their shape?  Primary structure o How many amino acids in each link and what is their sequence o Critical to function of protein  Secondary structure o Shape o A-helix (alpha helix)  Looks like a spiral staircase o B-pleated sheet (beta folded)  Look like a folded fan  Tertiary structure o Folding due to R-group interactions  R-groups coil around each other  Quaternary structure o Two or more peptide chains come together o In all of the protein there is a non protein element (called Heme) o Prosthetic groups


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