Lecture 11 and 12 Outlines
Lecture 11 and 12 Outlines Bio 1023
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURES!12!&!13! ! Lecture 12: Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration- Process by which living cells obtain energy from organic molecules •! Involves the mitochondrion •! Primary aim is to make ATP •! Aerobic respiration uses oxygen Photosynthesis: •! Formation of energy storing molecules (glucose) Cellular Respiration: •! Breakdown of glucose to attain stored energy (ATP) Glucose Metabolism: •! 3 metabolic pathways o! Glycolysis o! Citric acid cycle o! Oxidative phosphorylation (ETC) Glycolysis: •! Breakdown of 6-C Glucose molecule into 2 3-C Pyruvate molecules •! Occurs in cytosol (outside the mitochondrion) •! Can occur with or without oxygen •! Results in a yield of 2 ATP and 2 NADH The Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle): •! 2 Pyruvates enter the mitochondrion •! Metabolic cycle, certain molecules enter while others leave, organic molecules regenerated with each cycle •! Releases 2ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH for eac2 glucose Electron Transport Chain (Oxidative Phosphoraylation): •! Where most ATP is formed •! High energy electrons donated from NADH and FADH 2 •! Passed down ETC to a final oxygen acceptor •! Generates gradient to make ATP •! Enough energy to make 30-34 ATP •! Oxygen is important for life Fermentation: •! Anaerobic respiration; without oxygen •! Many organisms can only use O as final electron acceptor 2 •! Make ATP via glycolysis only •! Muscle cells produce lactate as by product •! Yeast make ethanol as byproduct PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURES!12!&!13! ! •! Produces far less ATP Biofuels Production: •! Biofuels are made from organic matter •! Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled greases •! Production of crops to produce ethanol is very costly •! Causes food production to increase •! Cannot efficiently get sugars/starches through cellulose •! Bacterial surrogates Lecture 13: Genetics Genetics: •! Study of variation and its how it is passed from generation to generation •! Genes- Units of instruction for producing or influencing traits •! Gene Pair- Two genes at the same place on homologous chromosomes •! Allele- Different form of a gene at a given location o! If alleles are the same form=homozygous (BB or bb) o! If the alleles are different forms= heterozygous (Bb) •! Dominant Allele- The allele that is expressed in the heterozygous condition •! Recessive Allele- The allele that is not expressed in the heterozygous condition •! Genotype- Genetic composition of individual o! TT- homozygous dominant o! tt- homozygous recessive o! Tt- heterozygous •! Phenotype- Characteristics that are the result of gene expression o! TT and Tt are tall o! tt is dwarf Gregor Mendel: •! 1822-1884 •! Entered monastery and became a priest •! Historic studies on pea plants •! Conducted plant breeding experiments from 1856-1864 •! Garden Pea
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