Intro psyc PSYC 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Croteau on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences taught by Prof Underwood in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
LIB – 120 – Introduction to Psychology Chapter 2: Neuroscience Vocabulary Acetylcholine (ACh) A neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory. And muscle movement. (46) Agonist: A drug or poison that increases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters. (46) Amygdala: A part of the brain that is involved in emotions by influencing aggression, anger and dear and by providing the emotional element of our memories and the interpretation of emotional expressions in others. Antagonist: A drug or poison that decreases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters. (46) Association Cortex: All of the cerebral cortex except those areas devoted to primary sensory processing or motor processing. This is where all the higherlevel cognitive processing that requires the association (integration) of information, such as perception and language, occurs. Autonomic Nervous System: The part of the PNS that regulates the functioning of the internal environment (Glands and organs, like the heart, lungs, and stomach). (53) Axon: The long, singular fiber projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to conduct the neural impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals triggering chemical communication with other neurons. (41) Basal Ganglia: A part of the brain that is involved in the initiation and execution of movements. BloodBrain Barrier: A protective mechanism by which the blood capillaries supplying the brain create a barrier that prevents dangerous substances access to the brain. (47) Broca’s Area: An area in the cerebral cortex responsible for fluent speech production. It is in the left frontal lobe of the majority of people, regardless of handedness. CannonBard Theory: A Theory of emotion proposing that an emotion is determined from simultaneously occurring physiological arousal, behavioral responses, and cognitive appraisal. (58) Cell Body: The part of the neuron that contains its nucleus and the other biological machinery to keep the cell alive and that decides whether or not to generate a neural impulse in order to pass incoming information on to other neurons. (41) Central Nervous System (CNS): The brain and spinal cord. (51) Cerebellum: A part of the brain involved in the coordination of our movements, sense of balance, and motor learning. (62) Cerebral Cortex: The layers of the interconnected cells covering the brains two hemispheres. This is the control and informationprocessing center for the nervous system; it is where perception, memory, language, decision making, and all other higherlevel cognitive processing occur. Consciousness: An individual’s subjective awareness of their inner thinking and feeling and their external environment. Corpus Callosum: the Bridge of neurons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. Dendrites: Fibers Projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to receive information from other neurons. (41) Dopamine: A neurotransmitter involved in arousal and mood states, though processes, and physical movement. (46) Emotion: A complex Psychological state that involves a state of physiological arousal, an outward behavioral expression of the emotion and a cognitive appraisal of the situation to determine the specific emotion and its intensity. (56) Endocrine Glandular System: The body’s other major communication system. Communication through hormones that are secreted by endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to their target cells. (54Depending on their class type, and the distance that they must be traveling they travel through the blood stream. Hydrophobic must bind to a carrier protein to travel long distances over the cytosol. Hydrophilic signals must bind to a receptor on the transmembrane portion of the target cell in order to move across the membrane, it was previously moved out of the membrane by exocytosis Frontal Lobe: The area in each cerebral hemisphere in front of the central fissure and above the lateral fissure. The motor cortex is in this love. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): A computerized image of the activity levels of various areas in the brain generated by detecting the amount of oxygen brought to each area. (45) GABA (GammaAminobutyric Acid): The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. It is involved in memory, storage, pain perceptions, strokes, and schizophrenia. (48). Glial Cells (glia): Cells in the nervous system that comprise the support system for the neurons. (40) Hippocampus: A part of the brain involved in the formation of memories. Hormone: A chemical messenger that is produced by and endocrine gland and carried by the bloodstream to target tissues throughout the body. (54) Hypothalamus: A part of the brain that is involved in regulating basic drives such as eating, drinking and having sex. It also directs the endocrine glandular system through its control of the pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system to maintain the body’s internal environment. Interneurons: Neurons that integrate information within the CNS through their communications with each other and between sensory and motor neurons in the spinal cord. (52) JamesLange Theory: A theory of emotion proposing that an emotion is determined from a cognitive appraisal of the physiological arousal and behavioral responses, which occur first. (57) LDopa: A drug for Parkinson’s disease that contains precursors to dopamine so that once it is in the brain, it will be converted to dopamine. (47) Limbic System: A group of brain structures (Hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala) that play an important role in our survival, memory, and emotions. Medulla: A brain stem structure involved in many essential body functions such as a heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, and swallowing. (61) Motor Cortex: The strip of cortex in each cerebral hemisphere in the frontal lobe directly in front of the central fissure, which allows us to move different parts of our body. Motor Neurons: Neurons in the PNS that carry movement commands from the CNS out to the rest of the body. (52) Myelin Sheath: An insulating layer covering an axon that allows for faster neural impulses. (42) Neurons: Cells that transmit information within the nervous system. (40) Neurotransmitter: A naturally occurring chemical in the nervous system that specializes in transmitting information between neurons. (44) Occipital Lobe: The area located in the lower back of each cerebral hemisphere. The primary visual cortex is in this lobe. Parasympathetic Nervous System: The part of the autonomic nervous system that returns the body to its normal resting state after having been highly arouses, as in an emergency. (53) Parietal Lobe: The area in each cerebral hemisphere in back of the central fissure and above the lateral fissure. The somatosensory cortex is in this lobe. Parkinson’s Disease: A disease in which the person has movement problems such as muscle tremors, difficulty initiating movements, and rigidity of movement. These movement problems stem from a scarcity of dopamine in the basal ganglia. (46) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): The part of the nervous system that links the CNS with the body’s sensory receptors, muscles and glands. (51) Pituitary Gland: The most influential gland in the endocrine glandular system It releases hormones for human growth and hormones that direct other endocrine glands to release their hormones. (54) Pons: A brain stem structure that serves as a bridge between the cerebellum and the rest of the brain, and is involved in sleep and dreaming. (61) Position Emission Tomography (PET) Scans: A visual display if the activity levels in various areas in the brain generated by detecting the amount of positron emission created by the metabolization of radioactive glucose in each area. (44) REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep: The stage of sleep that is characterized by rapid eye movement and brain wave patterns that resemble those for an awake state and in which most dreaming occurs. REM sleep is sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep because the bodily muscles are immobilized but much of the brain is highly active. Reticular Formation: A network of neurons running up the center of the brain stem that is responsible for our different levels of arousal and consciousness. (62) SchachterSinger TwoFactor Theory: A theory of emotion proposing that an emotion is determined by cognitive appraisal of the physiological arousal and the entire environmental situation. (58) Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SSNRIs): Antidepressant drugs that achieve their agnostic effect on serotonin and norepinephrine by selectively blocking their reuptake. (48) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): Antidepressant drugs that achieve their agnostic effect on serotonin by selectively blocking its reuptake. (48) Sensory Neurons: Neurons in the PSN that carry information to the CNS from sensory receptors, muscles, and glands. (52) Serotonin and Norepinephrine: Neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood, sleep, and eating. (47) Somatic (Skeletal) Nervous System: The part of the PNS that carries sensory input from the receptors to the CNS and relays commands from the CNS to the skeletal muscles to control their movement. (53) Somatosensory Cortex: The strip of cortex in each cerebral hemisphere in the parietal lobe directly in the back of the central fissure, which allows us to sense pressure, temperature, and pain in different parts of the body as well as the position of our body parts. Spinal Cord: The conduit between the brain and the PNS for incoming sensory data and outgoing movement commands to the muscles. (52) Spinal Reflex: A simple automatic reaction of the spinal cord not requiring involvement of the brain, such as the knee –jerk reflex. (52) Sympathetic Nervous System: The part of the autonomic nervous system that is in control when we are highly aroused, as in an emergency, and need to prepare for defensive action. (53) Synaptic Gap (Synapse): The microscopic gap between neurons across which neurotransmitters travel to carry their messages to other neurons. (44) Temporal Lobe: The area in each cerebral hemisphere located beneath the lateral fissure. The primary auditory cortex is in this lobe. Thalamus: A part of the brain that serves as a relay station for incoming sensory information Wernicke’s Area: An area in the cerebral cortex responsible for comprehension of speech and text. It is in the left temporal lobe of the majority of people, regardless of handedness. LIB – 120 – Introduction to Psychology Chapter 2: Neuroscience Chapter Outline The Neuron Humans are biological organisms, and to understand our behavior and mental processes, we need to understand the biological underpinnings, starting with the neuron. How we feel, learn, remember, and think all stem from neuronal activity. The Structure of a Neuron The brain and the nervous system are composed of two different types of cells – neurons and glial cells. Neurons – are responsible for information transmission throughout the nervous system. They receive, send and integrate information within the brain and the rest of the nervous system. Glial cells (glia) constitute support systems for the neurons. They take away waste products of neurons, keep the neurons chemical environment stable and insulate them. (90% of the brain is made up of glial cells) The 3 main parts of the neuron are the Dendrites, cell body, and axon. Dendrites - The fibers that project out of the cell body like the branches of a tree. They receive information from other neurons. They then pass the information to the cell body. Cell body – which contains the nucleus of the cell and the other biological machinery that keeps the cell alive. The cell body also decides whether or not to pass the information from the dendrites on to other neurons. It does so by way of the Axon. Axon – the long singular fiber leaving the cell body. At its end, it divides into axon terminals. The main function of the axon is to conduct information from the cell body of to the axon terminals in order to trigger transmission of information with other neurons. How Neurons Communicate Neurons communicate with one another using electrical and partly chemical processes
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