intro psyc PSYC 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Croteau on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences taught by Prof Underwood in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
LIB – 120 – Introduction to Psychology Chapter 8: Personality Vocabulary Anal stage of psychosexual development: The second stage of Freud’s Theory (from 18 months to 3 years old) in which the erogenous zone is the anus, and the child derives pleasure from stimulation of the anal region through having and withholding bowel movements. Attribution: The process by which we explain our own behavior and that of others. Conditions of worth: The behaviors and attitudes for which other people, starting with our parents, will give us positive regard. Conscious mind: Freud’s term for what we are presently aware of. Defense mechanism: A process used by the ego to distort reality and protect a person from anxiety Ego: The part of the personality that starts developing in the first year or so of life in order to find realistic outlets for the id’s instinctual drives. Erogenous zone: The area of the body where the id’s pleasure seeking energies are focuses during a particular stage of psychosexual development. External locus of control: The perception that chance or external forces beyond one’s personal control determines ones fate. Fixation: Some of the id’s pleasureseeking energies remaining stuck in a psychosexual stage due to excessive or insufficient gratification of instinctual needs. Genital Stage of psychosexual development: The fifth stage (5 ) in Freud’s theory (from puberty through adulthood), in which the erogenous zone is at the genitals and the child develops sexual relationships, moving toward intimate adult relationships. Hierarchy of needs: The motivational component in maslow’s theory of personality, in which our innate needs that motivate our behavior are hierarchically arranged in a pyramid shape. From bottom to top, the needs of physiological, safety, belonging and love, esteem, and selfactualization. Id: The part of the personality that a person is born with, where the biological instinctual drives reside, and that is located totally in the unconscious mind. Identification: The process by which children adopt the characteristics of the samesex parent and learn their gender role and sense of morality. Internal locus of control: The perception that we control our own fate. Latency stage of psychosexual development: The fourth (4 ) stage in Freud’s theory (from 6 years old to puberty), in which there is no erogenous zone, sexual feelings are repressed, and the focus is on cognitive and social development. Learned helplessness: A sense of hopelessness in which a person thinks that he is unable to prevent aversive events. Oedipus conflict: A phallic stage for a boy in which the boy becomes sexually attracted to his mother and fears his father will find out and castrate him. Oral stage of psychosexual development: The first (1 ) stage of Freud’s theory (from birth to 18 months), in which the erogenous zones are the mouth, lips and tongue, and the child derives pleasure from oral activities such as sucking, biting, and chewing. Personality Inventory: An objective personality test that uses a series of questions or statements for which the test taker must indicate whether they apply to them or not. Personality: A person’s internally based characteristic ways of acting and thinking. Phallic stage of psychosexual development: The third (3 ) stage in Freud’s theory (from ages 3 to 6), in which the erogenous zone is located at the genitals, and the child derives pleasure from genital stimulation. Pleasure principle: The principle of seeking immediate gratification for instinctual drives without concern for the consequences. Preconscious mind: Freud’s term for what is stored in one’s memory that one is not presently aware of but can access. Projective Test: A personality test that uses a series of ambiguous stimuli to which the test taker must respond about their perceptions of the stimuli. Reality principle: The principle of finding gratification for instinctual drives within the constraints of reality (norms of society). Self actualization: The fullest realization of person’s potential. Self efficacy: A judgment of ones effectiveness in dealing with particular situations. Self Esteem: The set of cognitive processes by which a person observes, evaluates, and regulates their behavior. Selfserving bias: The tendency to make attributions so that one can perceive oneself favorably. Superego: The part of the personality that represents one’s conscience and idealized standards of behavior. Traits: The relatively stable internally bases characteristics that describe a person. Unconditioned positive reward: Unconditional acceptance and approval of a person by others. Unconscious mind: Freud’s term for the part of our mind that we cannot become aware of.