intro psyc PSYC 1010
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Croteau on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences taught by Prof Underwood in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
LIB – 120 – Introduction to Psychology Chapter 5: Memory Vocabulary Amnestic: A person with severe memory deficits following brain surgery or injury. Anterograde amnesia: The inability to form new explicit long term memories for events following surgery or trauma to the plain. Explicit memories formed before the the surgery or trauma are left intact. Automatic Processing: Memory processing that occurs subconsciously and does not require attention. Chunk: A meaningful unit in a person’s memory. Cuedependent theory: A theory of forgetting that proposes that forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues necessary to locate the information the information in long term memory. Distractor Task: A memory task in which a small amount of information is briefly presented and then the participant is distracted from rehearsing the information for a variable period of time, after which the participant has to recall the information. Effortful Processing: Memory processing that occurs consciously and requires attention. Elaborative Rehearsal: A type of rehearsal in short term memory in which incoming information is related to information from long term memory to encode it into long term memory. Encoding failure theory: A theory of forgetting that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long term memory. Encoding specificity principle: The principle that the environmental cues (both internal and external) present at the time information is encoded into the long term memory serve as the best retrieval cues for the information. Encoding: The process of moving information from one memory stage to the next. (from sensory into sort term memory, or from short term memory to long term memory) Episodic Memory: Explicit memory for personal experiences. Explicit (Declarative) Memory: Long term memory for factual knowledge and personal experiences. This type of memory requires conscious effort to remember and entails making declarations about the information remembered. False memory: An inaccurate memory that feels as real as an accurate memory. Free Recall Task: A memory task in which a list of items is presented one at a time and then the participant is free to recall them in any order/ Iconic Memory: The visual sensory register that holds an exact copy of the incoming visual input but only for a brief period of time, less than one second. Implicit (nondeclarative) Memory: Long term memory for procedural tasks, classical conditioning, and primary effects. This type of memory does not require conscious awareness or the need to make declarations about the information remembered. Infantile/child Amnesia: Our inability as adults to remember events that occurred in our lives before about 3 years of age. Interference Theory: A theory of forgetting that proposes that forgetting is due to other information in memory interfering and thereby making the tobe remembered information inaccessible. Levelsofprocessing Theory: A theory of information processing in memory that assumes that semantic processing, especially elaborative semantic processing leads to better long term memory. Longterm Memory: The memory stage in which information is stored for a long period of time (perhaps permanently) and whose capacity is essentially unlimited. Maintenance Rehearsal: A type of rehearsal in shortterm memory in which the information is repeated over and over again in order to maintain. Memory Span Task: A memory task in which the participant is given Memory Span: The average number of items and individual can remember across a series of memory span trials. Method of loci: A mnemonic in which sequential pieces of information to be remembered are encoded by associating then with sequential locations in a very familiar room or place then the pieces of information are retrieved by mentally going around the room (place) and retrieving the piece at each location. Misinformation effect: The distortion of a memory by exposure to misleading information. Mnemonic: A memory aid. Moodcongruence effect: Tendency to retrieve experiences and information that are congruent with a persons current mood. Mooddependent memory: Longterm memory retrieval is best when a persons mood state at the time of encoding and retrieval od the information is the same. Pegwood system: A mnemonic in which the items in a list to be remembered are associated with the sequential items in a memorized jingle and then the list is retrieved by going through the same jingle and retrieving the associated items. Primary Effect: The superior recall of the early portion of list relative to the middle of the list in a one trial free recall task. Priming: The implicit influence of an earlier presented stimulus on the response to a later stimulus. This influence is independent of conscious memory for the earlier stimulus. Proactive interference: The disruptive effect of prior learning on the retrieval of new information. Procedural Memory: Implicit memory for cognitive and motor tasks that have a physical procedural aspect to them. Recall: A measure of long term memory retrieval that requires the reproduction of the information with essentially no retrieval cues. Recency Effect: The superior recall of the latter portion of a list relative to the middle of the list in one trial free recall task. Recognition: A measure of longterm memory retrieval that only requires the identification of the information in the presence of retrieval cues. Relearning: The savings method of measuring long term memory retrieval in which the measure is the amount of time saved when learning information for the second time. Retrieval: The process of bringing information stored in long term memory into short term memory. Retroactive interference: The disruptive effect of new learning on the retrieval of old information. Retrograde amnesia: The disruption of memory for the past, especially episodic information for events before, especially just before, surgery or trauma to the brain. Schemas: Frameworks for our knowledge about people, objects, events, and actions that allow us to organize and interpret information about our world. Selfreference effect: The superior long term memory for information related to oneself at time of encoding into long term memory. Semantic Memory: Explicit memory for factual knowledge. Sensory Memory: The set of sensory registers, one for each of our senses, that serve as holding places for incoming sensory information until it can be attended to, interpreted, and encodes into shortterm memory. Shortterm Memory: The memory state with a small capacity (7 +/ 2 chunks) and brief duration ( <30 seconds) that we are consciously aware of and in which we do our problem solving, reasoning, and decision making. Source misattribution: Attributing a memory to the wrong source, resulting in a false memory. Spacing (distributed Study) Effect: Superior longterm memory for spaced study versus massed study (cramming) Sperling’s fullreport Procedure: An experimental procedure in which, following the brief presentation of a matrix of unrelated consonants, the participant has to attempt to recall all of the letters in the matrix. Sperling’s partialreport Procedure: An experimental procedure in which, following the brief presentation of a matric of unrelated consonants, the participant is given an auditory cue about which row of the matrix to recall. Statedependent memory: Longterm memory retrieval is best when a persons physiological state at the time of encoding and retrieval of the information is the same. Storage Decay Theory: A theory of forgetting that proposes that forgetting is due to the decay of biological representation of the information and that periodic usage of the information will help maintain it in storage. Storage: The process of maintaining information is a memory stage. Temporal Integration Procedure: An experimental procedure in which two meaningless visual patterns that produce meaningful pattern if integrated are presented sequentially with the time delay between their presentations varied. Tipofthetongue Phenomenon: The failure to recall specific information from memory combined with partial recall and the feeling that recall is imminent. LIB – 120 – Introduction to Psychology Chapter 5: Memory Chapter Outline MEMORY SYNOPSIS Three stage model of memory Encoding information into memory Retrieving information from memory THREE STAGE MODEL OF MEMORY Sensory Memory Short Term Memory (Working Memory) (STM) Long Term Memory (LTM) 1. Sensory Input Stimulus causes sensory input i.e. hearing something, seeing Sensory Register – step one Happens very quickly, a quick stimuli. You may only be able to remember a few because it has not been encoded into your STM, or LTM. 2. Encoding – working memory (Short term memory) Encoding short term memory STM working memory that “does stuff” – may not be able to remember it forever. 3. Retrieval – puts back into working memory LTM – long term memory ATTENTION AND RECOGNITION The “I’ve heard that song before” – can still sing along even after not hearing it before, you recognize the song and can pull it back into the working memory by retrieving it. Hearing, smelling (can all trigger the same reaction and retrieval of the information from the LTM and pull it back into the STM (working memory)). Recognition of something and then further processing it back to working memory and STM/LTM. SENSORY REGISTER – STAGE 1 Consists of 5 registers The 5 senses Temporary storage place and uses the information we gained from the environment, we then keep it there until we tend to it (need the information). ICONIC MEMORY An exact copy of visual information. (Quick snap shot, not saving anything) Capacity is limitless, you just decide if you remember it or not. Allows us to perceive motions. Series of still items but when they are put into rapid movement, it looks like motion, i.e. a flip book. We have ways of testing iconic memory Use experiments Temporal integration Procedure This procedure is putting together and combining items in a limited not permanent time setting. 2 different images may be shown for 2 seconds a piece, and alternate between the two, this would then pull up a meaningful image. Taking two random and meaningless dots and flash them very quickly sequentially w/ a brief time delay. When the two are integrated together a meaningful image is created. The brain’s automatic process is trying to make sense of it. TESTING ICONIC MEMORY For a meaningful pattern to be perceived, the two patterns must be integrated somewhere in the memory system. FULL REPORT PROCEDURE: Participants had to report the entire 3 X 3 matrix 3 X 3 matrix 9 Letters No vowels were present PARTIAL REPORT PROCEDURE: Participants only have to report back ONE row of the matrix. * Has not been encoded with the short term memory* If there’s a delay in the auditory cue, it causes deficits in the results. WORKING MEMORY – SHORT TERM MEMORY Stage of memory in which the recognized information from sensory enters consciousness. This is where cognitive processing occurs. A place where you can “rehearse” memory – repeating a zip code long term memory where we are able to encode it and then retrieve it if need be. TESTING THE CAPACITY OF “STM” Memory Span Test: Tests the capacity of the Short Term Memory Memory Span – the average number of items you can remember across a series of memory span trials. Have to remember in the same order – evaluates the working memory. Chunk – meaningful information – meaningful sets of words, ect. (Set of unit of information. Humans tend to have a memory span of about 7 +/- 2 (5-9 letters or chunks, a phone number is a good example of a chunk, and the memory span of a human, it is 10 numbers long, and people tend to not have to remember the area code because they are familiar with it. DURATION OF SHORT TERM MEMORY Measured using a distractor test. To keep information in STM, we use maintenance rehearsal. Maintenance Rehearsal – Repeating information in short term memory to keep it from fading from short term memory. LONG TERM MEMORY Allows storage of information for a long period of time (perhaps permanent) and its capacity is essentially unlimited. TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY Explicit Memory – (Also called Declarative) – long term memory for factual knowledge + personal experiences. Saying a fact – recalling information requires consciousness. Semantic Memory – the facts that are being declared Episodic – an experience (the things you experience) Individual experiences that are personal to people. Implicit Memory – (Non declarative Memory) – long term memory that influences behavior, but not requiring consciousness. Procedural Memories – like an autonomic response EVEN IF YOU CANT DECLARE A MEMORY – ex. When someone can not personally say the pin to their debit card nor remember it, but if you were to put their hand over the pin pad, they would possibly and more likely be able to recall the information and press the correct buttons. CONDITIONING MEMORY (LEARNING) Autonomic conditioned memory * happens automatically due to the pairing * AMNESIA The loss of long term memory Amnesics – are people with severe memory deficits following brain surgery or trauma. Antrograde Amnesia (H.M.) – the inability to form memories following an injury. ( if injured at 27, no memories will form from 27 on, but you can still remember things from before the accident or injury from “birth” to 27) Retrograde – (retro – old) – the inability to remember the past or before the injury or trauma. If injured at 30 you cant remember from “birth” to 30, but all memories formed after you can remember. 0 20 40 50 60 80 100 50 INJURY or TRAUMA Remembers – Antrograde Remembers – Retrograde (cant remember past – retro – old) Free Recall Task – Experimental procedure in which patients are given random words and are asked to repeat them in any order. First words said = Superior Primacy Effect First words are more well remembered than the middle Last words said – recent Recency Effect Last words are strongly remembered due to the recency effect. *There is an improvement on the words that are being given back to the experimenter * Last words are still in the working memory, they’re not encoded (There is only a certain capacity of the working memory). *The first words have been encoded to the LTM, and must be retrieved to say them back to the experimenter. The recency effect caused by recall from short term memory; whereas the primacy effect is the result of superior recall from the long term memory of the first few words in the list. ENCODING INFORMATION INTO MEMORY How do we encode information? How do we improve encoding of information? Encoding storage retrieval Encoding – taking info in from the sensory register; bumping it up into long term memory after it is processed through the STM. HOW WE ENCODE INFORMATION Autonomic Processing: Involuntary, do not have to think about it to process it. (subconscious level) Effortful Processing: You need to think about it; voluntary, requires consciousness to encode. For a particular type of processing, much practice is needed (rehearsal) Effortful Processing – when there’s automatic processing, we don’t have to think about it. What is processed Automatically: Personal Experiences Information of high interest (not actively involved in memorizing, but just automatically happens) Basic types of learning – conditioning How to Process effortfully Practice Attention Elaborative rehearsal Elaborative Rehearsal – rehearsing information by relating new information to information that is already in long term memory. Maintenance Rehearsal – going back to it. Tinkering fixing a problem. Does it over time to keep it working, information is the same way, you must go back to it over time to keep it fresh, short term memory. Self Reference Effect – better to relate information you want to remember to yourself so you are able to remember it better. Examples from yourself help you remember things. Environmental Effects on Encoding Mood – dependent Memory – effects attest to the fact that memory is better when the mood is the same @ encoding and retrieval. If happy, you’re better able to retrieve a memory that was encoded when you were happy. You’re better capable to retrieve a memory when you’re in the mood that you were in when the memory was encoded. ** ENCODING ONLY** Mood Congruence Effect – Is the fact that memories are better for experiences that are similar to the mood. If youre upset then your ability to RECALL a memory that was upsetting to you is easier. ** RECALLING ONLY ** HOW TO IMPROVE ENCODING Mnemonic – a memory aid that require elaborative rehearsal. The method of Loci- Pairing a room or space you know and attaching an item to something you may need or need to remember. i.e. needs eggs, may say fridge, needs bread may say toaster. Peg word System: Pick a word with a meaning in another word or phrase. Spacing Effect – distributed study effect Memory improves if you study over a long period of time in smaller intervals. Overlearning – involves learning, and continuing to rehearse the material. Over learning makes it easier to go back and learn it again and retrieve it. LONG TERM MEMORY There is a large drop, a curve when it comes to memory, the ability to remember information and use said information is harder when it is in your long term memory and it is not being used. HOW TO MEASURE RETRIEVAL Recognition is a measure of retrieval that only requires you to recognize the information an requires context. Relearning – savings method – you need less time to relearn something you have an idea of. WHY WE FORGET Encoding Failure theory Storage decay theory Encoding failure theory – sometimes forget because the information never fully encoded into the long term memory, inability to save due to distraction, ect. Storage Decay Theory – gradual decay over time, you need to retrieve the information and rehearse it over time to stop the decay of the storage and memories you had already made. If it keeps coming up in thoughts, storage decay from so long ago may not occur to its full affect. TYPES OF INTERFERENCE
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