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Biology 1114 chapter 22 notes

by: hannah warren

Biology 1114 chapter 22 notes bio1114

Marketplace > Biology > bio1114 > Biology 1114 chapter 22 notes
hannah warren
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professor nelson

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Lecture notes with Dr. Nelson, talking about evolution theories
professor nelson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by hannah warren on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to bio1114 at a university taught by professor nelson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 188 views.


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Date Created: 01/31/15
Chapter 22 History of Evolutionary Thought Dr Nelson Lecture 12 Darwin s book Origin of Species 1859 estabished fact of evolution proposed naturalistic mechanism natural selection for organic evolution prior to book humans saw each other as quotcrown of creation competey separate from animals phiosophica fallout whether or not Earth was designed at all Science conclusions always tentative systematicaly examined for error predictions must be testable confined to natural mechanisms of cause and effect simpicity is best to the extent possible consiience inner agreement across disciplines scientific hypothesis can t be proven prefer the theory that is least rejected hypotheses that survive a larger number of tests become scientific theory Plato and Aristotle s Essentialism for each category there is an ideal real objects only approximate presumes categories are completely separable and that no change of category is possible antithetical to possibility that anything changes over time bioogists study God s handiwork quotNatural Theologians Linnaeus classified organisms by similarity created classification system kingdom phylum class order family genus species least to most specific Natural Theology Beliefs species do not evolve single line of increasing perfection earth is less than 10000 years old species designed for their environment Darwin believed people were created by God by quotspecial creation does not explain poor design evidence in 1700 s mounted against unchangeability fossis found in sedimentary rocks creationists explained fossils by catastrophism strata marked different catastrophes catastrophes destroy species and new ones emerge modern geology started with Hutton and Lyell purposed uniformitarianism geological processes are uniform over time the same as in earlier eras modern explanation of strata rivers carry sediment old animals die rest on ocean floor cycle continues new strata form sea levels change pushing strata up Lamarck suggested fossils give evidence of evolution sparked debate about species ability to change ridiculed by Cuvier proposed two ideas to explain evolution 1 Organisms possess an innate drive to become more complex 2 Inheritance of change through principle of use and disuse and inheritance of acquired characteristics ie giraffe stretches its neck to reach leaves to eat gradually making it longer pass down stretched neck to offspring species grouped by similarity Linnaeus earth is very old Hutton and Lyell species can change over time Lamarck DLwin 5 years as a naturalist on the U55 Beagle made observations he was later able to explain fossis on a continent are similar to plantsanimals living on the continent pantsanimals or neighboring climatic zones were similar pantsanimals on islands are similar to organisms on the nearest mainland observations were not predicted by special creation but were consistent with decent and modification pubished quotThe Origin said evolution had occurred scientists persuaded by evidence driving force of change is natural selection scientists skeptical on this point read Malthus quotOn Population Malthus observed that populations grow exponentially sources can t keep up Darwin applied concept to organisms beieved this is why competition among organisms occurred Natural Selection Populations have a large capacity to increase Increases rarely seen Essential resources are limited Individuals in a population vary Some variation is heritable a Species with heritable traits that promote survival and reproduction will tend to leave more offspring b Over time nonrandom reproduction will cause a change in a populations traits WPP N Darwin said natural selection was analogous to artificial selection people doing the selecting Problems with Natural Selection insufficient time earth too young physicist Lord Kelving said earth could be 40 million years old at most seemed like too little time to produce organic diversity seen on earth calculations correct but assumptions weren t left out radioactive decay blending inheritance reduces variability of a population each generation yet we don t see reduction if variance stay constant there must be new variation Gregor Mendel found inheritance behaves as particles that are passed on genes quantitative traits seem to be a blend of parents traits qualitative traits categorical inherited by all or none Hardy Weinberg Theorem showed no variation is lost from one generation to the next Modern Svnthesis induces modern genetics population genetics emphasizes that not all evolution is driven by natural selection some is adaptive combines info from many separate disciplines into a general theory everything fitting together earn it the quottheoryquot title Maior Advances of Darwin replaces essentialism with population thinking natural selection affects population natural selection is not a constant force common misconceptions evolution is NOT directed there is no goal complexity correlates with successNO evolution is quotsurvival of the fittest NO evolution is randomNO


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