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by: Alynn Merkin

anatomyfinal.docx anatomy

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Alynn Merkin
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This 21 page Reader was uploaded by Alynn Merkin on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Reader belongs to anatomy at University of Miami taught by in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 94 views.

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Date Created: 01/31/15
ANATOMY FINAL REVIEW CHAPTER 20 The Cardiovascular system BLOOD o The Cardiovascular system CVS links all parts of the body I Circulating uid blood I Pump the heart I Assortment of conducting pipes a network of blood vessels 0 Function of Blood l Specialized uid connective tissue Distributes nutrients oxygen to about 75 trillion body cells Carries metabolic wastes to the kidneys for excretion Transports specialized ells that defend peripheral tissues from infection and disease I Alkaline pH range 735745 l Temperature is slightly higher then the core body 0 Blood Composition l Plasma the liquid matrix of blood 0 Contains dissolved proteins l Formed elements lblood cells and fragments that are suspended n the plasma highly specialized and abundant Red Blood Cells RBC l transport oxygen and carbon dioxide 0 White Blood CellsLeukocytes WBC components of immune system Plateletsl membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymesfactors essential for BLOOD CLO39ITING Whole bloodl sticky cohesive resistant to flow viscosity of a solution 0 Water viscosity 1 0 Plasma 15 o WHOLE BLOOD 50 l Hypovolemicnormovolemichypervolemic Lownormalexcessivel blood volume 0 Plasma I On average 0 55 of the volume of whole blood 0 92 of plasma volume water I Differences between Plasma and Interstitial uid the written bullets refer to PLASMA the opposite of what is written of the lessergreater of what is written interstitial uid 0 Main difference involves the concentrations of dissolved gases and proteins 0 Concentration of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide l Higher dissolved oxygen concentration I Lower carbon dioxide concentration 0 Concentration of dissolved Proteins l Signi cant amount of dissolved proteins l Large sizeglobular shape of most plasma proteins prevents them from crossing capillary walls remain trapped in CVS l Plasma Proteins 90 are synthesized and released from the liver Account for 75 of plasma composition 3 major classes albumins globulins and brinogen ALBUMIN o 60 of plasma proteins 0 Major contributor of plasma s osmotic pressure 0 Transport fatty acids steroid hormones etc o Smallest of the major plasma proteins mots abundant O GLOBULIN o 35 of plasma proteins 0 lmmunoglobulin amp Transport Globulins l lmmunoglobulin antibodies attack foreign proteins and pathogens l Transport Globulin l bind small ions hormones or compounds that are insoluble or can be ltered out of the blood via kidneys O FIBRINOGEN o 4 of plasma proteins 0 Largest of the plasma protein 0 ESSENTIAL for blood clotting l Fibrinogen molecules interact forming FIBRIN strands l the basic framework for a blood clot o If steps are NOT taken to prevent clotting the conversion from brinogen to brin removes the clotting proteins leaving a fluid serum Albumins and Globulins can attach to lipids that are not water soluble o Proteinlipid combination LIPOPROTEINS l Readily dissolve in plasma I This is how insoluble lipids are delivered to peripheral Ussues o Formed elements I Major components of blood RBCs and Leukocytes Leukocytes granular and agranular with out granules l Noncellular formed elements l platelets function in clotting response 0 Red Blood Cells aka Erythrocytes l Less than half of total blood volume 1000 for every 1 WBC l Hematocrit value indicates the percentage of whole blood contributed by formed elements 0 Values are often reported as the Volume of packed red blood cellsquot VPRC or packed cell volume PCV Adult men average 45 0 Adult woman average 42 l Structure of RBC 0 Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Biconcave disc with a thin central region and thick outer margin 0 Provides strength and exibility o Disproportionately large surface area I Permits rad diffusion between the RBC cytoplasm and surrounding plasma 0 Form stacks l quotrouleaux l Form and dissociate repeatedly without affecting the cells involved I RBC life span and circulation During differentiation and maturation lose most of their organelles retaining only a cytoskeleton o Circulation RBC s lack mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum ribosome and nuclei Cells can only retain energy through anaerobic metabolism because they lack mitochondria o Rely on glucose obtained from the surrounding plasma Can not synthesize proteins because lack nuclei and ribosomes 0 Cannot replaces damaged enzymes or structural proteins Short life do to its high stress and lack of ability to repairsynthesize damaged cells About 120 days after traveling around the body plasmalemma ruptures or the aged cell is detected and destroyed by phagocytic cells Mature RBC I plasmalemma surrounding cytoplasm containing water and proteins l RBCs and Hemoglobin Hemoglobin Hb Responsible for cells ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide 0 Red pigment 0 Accounts for 95 of the RBC proteins 0 Contains 4 heme units can carry a billion plus oxygen molecules 0 Composed of 4 polypeptide subunits 2 ALPHA chains and 2 BETA chains l Each subunit contains a molecule of HEME which holds an IRON ion which interacts with an oxygen molecule Ironoxygen interaction very weak and easily separated withOUT damage I Carries some carbon dioxide binds to amino acids of the globulin subunit rather then competing with oxygen to bind to iron o RBCs ABSORB OXYGEN AND RELEASE CARBON DIOXIDE o In peripheral tissues the OPPOSITE occurs because active cells are consuming oxygen and producing carbon dioxide l Oxygen diffuses out and carbon dioxide diffuses in then RBCs released oxygen and absorb Carbon dioxide Blood Types Determined by the presence or absence of speci c components in the erythrocyte plasmalemmae Red blood plasmalemmae contains a number of SURFACE ANTIGENS which are exposed to plasma RBC of each person have a characteristic combination of surface antigens o Glycoproteins or glycolipid o 3 have been designated names A B D Rh l Type A l antigen A l Type B l antigen B l Type D Rh l both Rh factor present Rhpositive or absent Rh negaUve l Type O l neither l Antibodies and Cross Reactions 0 Plasma antibodies that will attach foreign surface antigens I agglutinins 0 TYPE A B o l produce antibodies to each other I Ex if you are type A you have Bantibodies etc Q When antibodies meet speci c antigen CROSS REACTION occurs 0 RBCs clump together agglutination or rupture hemolyze l RBCs under attack can drift and form masses that can clog small vessels in the kidney lungs heart brain Damaging or destroying tissues deprived of circulation 0 CAN ALL BE AVOIDED BY CHECKING BLOOD COMPATIBILITY o Leukocytes White Blood Cells WBCs Scattered throughout peripheral tissues Help defend the body against invasion by pathogens and remove toxins wastes and abnormal or damaged cells Contain nuclei of characteristic size and shape 2 major classes granular or agranular leukocytes GRANULAR or granulocytes l have large granular inclusions in their cytoplasm AGRANULAR or agranulocyte l do NOT posses cytoplasmic granules Leukopenia l indicates INADEQUATE numbers of leukocytes less then 2500 Leukocytosis l indicated EXCESSIVE numbers of leukocytes more then 30000 Differential count l provided by stained blood smear Short life span few days In cases of injury or invasion of an area by a foreign organism l Leukocytes can migrate across the endothelial lining of a capillary l DIAPEDESIS Rapid WBCs transportation to injured sites WBCs are attracted to chemical signs of in ammation or infection in interstitial fluids attraction to specific chemical stimuli l CHEMOTAXIS Granular Leukocytes Subdivided on the basis of their staining characteristics neutrophils eosinophils and basophil neutrophilseosinophilsljimportant phagocytic cells that participate in immune response Neutrophils AKA Polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMNs O O O O O O 50 70 of WBCs Cytoplasm is packed with pale neutralstaining granules containing lysosomal enzymes and bactericidal compounds Very dense and contorted nucleus condensed into a series of lobes Highly mobile usually rst to arrive to infected area VERY ACTIVE PHAGOCYTESl specialized in attacking and digesting bacteria l Dies after engulfs bacteria l releases a chemical to call on other neutrophils to the site Short life span 12 hours Eosinophils AKA Acidophil o Granules stain with eosin acidic red dye o 24 of WBCs o Bilobed twolobed nucleus l easy to identify cell 0 Phagocytic cell attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with circulating antibodies 0 Attracted to injury sites release enzymes that reduce the degree of in ammation and control its spread to adjacent Ussues Basophils 0 Have numerous granules that stain with basic dyes purple or blue 0 Rare less than 1 of WBC o Migrate to sites of injury and cross the capillary endothelium to accumulate within the damaged tissues they discharge their granules into the interstitial uid l Granules contain HISTAMINEl dilated blood vessels and HEPARIN a compound that prevents blood from clotting Release chemicals that stimulate mass cells and attract basophils and other WBCs to the area I AGRANULAR LEUKOCYTES Circulating blood contains two types monocytes and lymphocytes differ functionally and structurally o Monocytes Largest WBC Each has a oval kidney shapedquot nucleus Circulate for a few days before entering peripheral Ussues Outside blood stream monocytes are called MACROPHAGES Highly mobile phagocytic cells 0 Arrive at the injury sit shortly after the rst neutrophils Release chemicals during phagotizing that attract and stimulate other monocytes and phagocytic cells 0 Also secrete substances that lure FIBROBLAST into the region 0 Produce scar tissuequot l dense network of collagen bers Part of the monocytemacrophage system 0 LYMPHOCYTES o Platelets Very small cytoplasm large round purplestaining nucleus Primary cell of LYMPHOID system a network of special vessels and organs distinct but connected to the CVS Responsible for SPECIFIC IMMUNITY l the ability of the body to mount a counterattack against invading pathogens or foreign proteins on an individual basis respond in one of three ways TCelsenter peripheral tissue and attack foreign cells directly BCellsl differentiates into plasmocytes plasma cells that secrete antibodies that attack foreign cells or proteins in distant portions of the body NKCellsl responsible for immune surveillance te destruction of abnormal tissue help prevent cancer I Flattened membraneenclosed packets which are round from above and spindle shaped in section I All platelets are called THROMBOCYTES by histologist l Red bone marrow contains a number of unusual ces MEGAKARYOCYTES 0 Large Nucleated cells Cytoplasm contains Golgi apparatus ribosomes and abundance or mitochondria Manufacture structural proteins enzymes and membranes shed cytoplasm in small membraneenclosed packets these are the platelets that ENTER circulation basically megakaryocytes form to make platelets via breaking of their cytoplasm 13 of platelets are held in the spleen and other vascular organs NOT in circulating blood Can be mobilized during circulatory crisis THROMBOCYTOPENIA low platelet count and indicated excessive platelet destruction and inadequate production symptoms internal bleeding THROMBOCYTOSIS results from accelerated platelet formation in response to infection in ammation or cancer HEMOSTASIS l prevents the loss of blood through the walls of damaged vessels Restricts blood loss and establishes a framework for tissue repairs 0 Platelet Functions Transport of chemicals important to the clotting process Formation of a temporary patch in the walls of damaged blood vessels Active contraction after clot formation has occurred 0 Hemopoiesis Process of blood cell formation Appear in circulation during the 3rd week of embryonic development Divide repeatedly Differentiate into stem cells that can produce blood cells by their division In adults the main center for blood cell formation is the BONE MARROW Stem cells called PLURIPOTENTIAL STEM CELLS PPSC hemocytoblasts give rise to all blood cells Process of producing blood cells Pluripotential stem cells give rise to two multipotential stem sells MULTIPOTENTIAL MYELOID STEMM STEL and MULTIPOTENTIAL LYMPHOID STEM CELLS o Myeloid stem cell will divide into 5 different types of stem cells relatively restricted function I 2 responsible for RBC and megakaryocyte production I 3 responsible for forming the various types of leukocytes o Lymphoid stem cell divides to form 2 different types of stem cells relatively restricted function l 1 responsible for forming plasmocytes l 1 responsible for forming TCells o Erythropoiesis Refers speci cally to the formation of erythrocytes Red bone marrow is primary cite in adults For process to occur myeloid tissues must receive adequate supplies of amino acids iron and Vitamin 812 Regulated by ERYTHROPOIESlSSTIMULATING HORMONE Erythropoietin EPO Produced and secreted under hypoxic lowoxygen conditions primarily in kidneys 2 major effects 0 Stimulates increased rates of cell division in erythroblasts and in the stem cells that produce erythroblasts o Speeds up the maturations of RBCs primarily by accelerating the rate of hemoglobin synthesis Stages in RBC maturation Erythroblastsreticulocytes enter the circulation Reticulocytes after cell sheds the nuclei 0 Leukopoiesis Stem cell responsible for the production of WBC Originate in bone marrow but many travel to the thymus Lungsthymus l primary lymphoid organs division of undifferentiated stem cells at these sites produce daughter cells destined to become specialized lymphocytes l Bcells and NK cells are produced in bone marrow l Tcells are produces in thymus All 3 can migrate to SECONDARY LYMPHOID STRUCTURES spleen tonsils or lymphnodes They can all divide but produce the same type of daughter cell l COLONOYSTIMULATING FACTORS CSFs l are involved in the regulation of other WBCs CHAPTER 23 The Lymphoid System 0 Lymphoid system Lymphatic system I Lymph l fluid connective tissue transported and monitored by the system Q Transported via Lymphatic vessels 0 Originate in peripheral tissues and deliver lymph to the venous system I Lymphocytes l cells within the lymphatic vessels l Lymphoid organs and tissuesl adjust the composition of lymph and produce lymphocytes of various kinds l Lymph is composed of o Interstitial fluidl resembles blood plasma with lower protein concentration 0 Lymphocytesl cells responsible for immune response 0 Macrophages of various types 0 Function of the lymphoid system I Produce maintain and distribute lymphocytes l Maintain normal blood volume and eliminate local variations in the chemical composition of interstitial uid l Provide an alternative route for the transport of hormones nutrients and waste products 0 Structure of lymphatic vessels l Lymphatic vessels AKA lymphatics Carry lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system I Range in size 0 Small lymphatic capillaries Largerlymphatic ducts o Lymphatic Capillaries Terminal lymphatics l Capillaries form a complex network within peripheral tissues l Differ from vascular capillaries Larger Thinner walls ER lacks basal lamina Have at irregular outline Have collagenous anchoring laments help keep passageways open when interstitial pressures increase Endothelial cells overlap instead of being tightly bound 0 Act like a valve allowing passage of interstitial uid into the lymphatic capillary Contain chemical and physical evidence about the health of the surrounding tissue ABSENT IN AREAS THAT lack blood supply bone marrow and central nervous system 0 Valves of Lymphatic Vessels From lymphatic capillaries lymph ows into Vessels that lead towards the lymphatic trunks in the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities Comparable to veins layers and walls in the presence of internal valves Prevent back ow of lymph within lymphatic vessels especially in limbs Rhythmic contractions propel lymph towards the lymphatic ducts Assisted by skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory contraction LYMPHEDEMAl occurs when a vessel is compressed or blocked pressure in that area increasescauses swelling Found in association with blood vessels 0 Different size appearance and branching patterns 0 Major LymphCollecting Vessels Two sets superficial and deep lymphatics collects lymph from the lymphatic capillaries SUPERFICIAL LYMPHATIC VESSELS Subcutaneous layer of skin loose connective tissues of mucous membranes in digestive respiratory urinary and reproductive tracts loose connective tissues of the serous membrane lining the pleural pericardial and peritoneal cavities l DEEP LYMPHATICS Collect lymph from skeletal muscles and other organs of the neck limbs and trunk visceral organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities l LYMPHATIC TRUNK l where superficial and deep lymphatics converge Lumbar trunk intestinal trunks bronchomediastinal trunk subclavian trunk and jugular trunk o Thoracic Duct l Collects lymph from both sides of the body inferior to the diaphragm and from the left side of the body superior to the diaphragm l CISTERNA CHYLIthe base of the thoracic duct Receives lymph from the inferior region of the abdomen pelvis and lower limbs via rightleft lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk l Inferior segment of thoracic duct penetrates the diaphragm with the aorta at an opening called the AORTIC HIATUS l After collecting lymph at the trunks empties into left subclavian vin 0 Right Lymphatic Duct l Collects lymph from the right side of the body superior to the diaphragm l Receives lymph from smaller lymphatic vessels that converge in the region of the right clavicle l Empties into the venous system at or near the junction of the right clavicle internal jugular vein and right subclavian vein 0 Lymphocytes l Primary cells of the lymphoid system I Responsible for speci c immunity l Respond to the presence of invading organisms abnormal body cells and foreign proteins l Attempt to eliminate these by physical and chemical attack Respond by initiating the an immune system response I Travel through the body circulate in blood stream move through peripheral tissues and return to blood stream through the lymphoid system 0 Types of Lymphocytes l TCells BCells and NK Cells l TCELLS thymus dependent 80 of circulating lymphocytes CYTOTOXIC TCELLS attack foreign cells or virus infected body cells responsible for providing CELLMEDIATED IMMUNITY HELPER TCELLS or SUPPRESSOR TCELLS assist in the regulation and coordination of the immune response control the activation and activity of BCELLS MEMORY TCELLS l produced by the division of activated Tcells following exposure to a particular antigen become activated when ever the same pathogen is present reason for being called MEMORY CELLS l BCELLS bone marrowderived When stimulated by an antigen can differentiate into a PLASMOCYTE o Responsible for the production and secretion of ANTIBODIES aka immunoglobulins l React directly with an antigen Responsible for ANTIBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY MEMORY BCELLS l produced by the division of activated Bcells occurs via exposure to a pathogen Helper Tcels promote cell differentiation of plasmocytes and accelerate the production of antibodies Suppressor Tcells l inhibit the formation of plasmocytes and reduce the production of antibodies by existing plasmocytes l NK CELLS natural killer Aka large granular lymphocytes Attack foreign cells normal cells infected with viruses and cancer cells that appear in normal tissue IMMUNOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE l continuous policing of peripheral tissue by NK cells and activated macrophages 0 Lymphocytes and the Immune Response l IMMUNE RESPONSE goal destruction or inactivation of pathogens abnormal cells and foreign molecules toxins Direct attack by activated TCells cell mediated immunity Attack by circulating antibodies released by the plasmocytes derived from activated Bcells antibodymediated immunity l Immune response to a bacterialviral infection Antigen appears l phagocytosis via macrophage l macrophage displays antigen in cell membrane l presents antigen to TCells antigen presentation lymphocytes whose plasmalemmae contain specific receptors that can bind to the antigen respond l Tcells go under activation begin to divide l will differentiate into all types of Tcells some will activate Bcells I In development cells in the lymphoid produce hundreds of different lymphocytes with varied antigens l IMMUNOCOMPETENCE the ability of a lymphocyte to recognize a speci c antigen 0 Distribution and Life Span of Lymphocytes BCellT Cell ratio depends on the tissue or organ considered Lymphocytes continually move through out the body Via blood or lymphatic vessels Relatively LONG life span 80 last about 4 years and others up to 20 years LYMPHOPOIESIS l process that maintains normal population of lymphocytes 0 Lymphopoiesis Lymphocyte Production Occurs in the bone marrow and thymus Pluripotential lymphoid stem cells in the bone marrow produce lymphocytic cells with 2 distinct fates 1 remains in the bone marrow divides to produce NK Cells and Bcells gain immunocompetence and migrate to peripheral tissueBcells reside in the lymphnodes spleen and lymphoid Ussue 2 stem cells migrate to the thymus via thymic hormones the cells divide produce daughter cells that mature into TCells T Cells migrate to the spleen lymphoid organs and bone marrow Lymphocytes travel in peripheral tissue retain ability to divide Produce same type daughter cells with sensitivity to the same speci c antigen 0 Lymphoid Tissue LYMPHOID TISSUEConnective tissue dominated by lymphocytes DIFFUSE LYMPHOID TISSUE l lymphocytes are loosely aggregated within connective tissue of the mucous membrane of the RESPIRATORYURINARY tracts LYMPHOID NODULES are aggregations of lymphocytes contained within a supporting framework of reticular bers 0 Found within the walls of parts of the digestive tract Pale central zone gt GERMINAL CENTEle contains activated dividing lymphocytes Digestive Tract has many lymphoid nodules MUCOSAASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE MALT Ex Tonsils nodules of the pharynx Lymphocytes aggregated in the TONSILS gather and remove pathogens that enter pharynx via air or food 0 5 tonsils 1pharyngeal 2palatine 2 lingual o Lymphoid Organs Separated from surround tissues by a brous connective tissue capsule Includes Lymphnodes thymus and the spleen o Lymphnodes Covered in dense brous connective tissue capsules TRABECULAEl fibrous extensions from the capsule to the interior of the node HILUM where blood vessels and nerves attach to the lymphnode Each has 2 sets of lymphatic vessels AFFERENT LYMPHATICSI39I bring lymph to the node from peripheral tissues ows through network of sinuses arrive at node entering SUBCAPSULAR SPACE contains meshwork of branching reticular bers macrophages and DENDRITIC CELLS collect antigens from the lymph and present them in their cell membrane to the OUTER CORTEX of the node contains aggregated BCells with germinal centers to DEEP CORTEX where the circulating lymphocytes leave the bloodstream and enter the lymphnode by crossing the walls of blood vessels within the deep cortex lymph continues to the core AKA MEDULLAljcontains BCells and plasmocytes organized into elongate masses MEDULLARY CORDS lymph enters the EFFERENT LYMPHATICS at the hilum after passing through a network of sinuses in the medulla 0 Distribution of Lymphoid Tissues and Lymph Nodes In areas particularly susceptible to injury or invasion Cervical lymph nodesmonitor lymph originated in the head and neck Axillary lymph nodesat trunk from upper limbs Popliteal lymph nodesarriving at thighs from leg lnguinal lymph nodesarriving at trunk form lower limbs Thoracic lymph nodes receive lymph from lungs respiratory passageways and mediastina structures Abdominal lymph nodesarriving from urinary and reproductive system Intestinal lymph nodesMesenterial lymph nodesarriving from digestive tract 0 Thymus lNVOLUTlONl degenerative process undergone by the thymus functional cells are replaced by connective tissue Covered by a capsule Divided into 2 THYMIC LOBES via SEPTA to form LOBULES with a dense outer CORTEX and central MEDULLA o Cortex contains lymphoid stem cells that divide rapidly producing daughter cells that mature into Tcells and migrate into the medulla While in the thymus TCells do NOT participate in immune response they remain inactive until they enter general circulation Capillaries do not allow free exchange between the interstitial fluid and the circulation BLOOD THYMUS BARRIEle prevents premature stimulation of developing TCells by circulating antigens RETICULAR CELLS responsible for the production of thymic hormones that promote the differentiation of the functional TCells Group together and cause an unknown function THYMIC CORPUSCLES o Spleen Largest lymphoid organ GASTROSPLENIC LlGAMENTl attaches spleen to lateral border of stomach l Functions 0 Removal of abnormal blood cells and other blood components through phagocytosis Storage of iron recycled from broken down red blood cells Initiation of immune responses by BCells and TCells in response to antigens in the circulating blood CHAPTER 26 The Urinary System 0 Removes and excretes Organic wastes excess water and excess electrolytes 0 Urinary System I Performs VITAL excretory functions I Functions Regulating plasma concentrations of ions by controlling the quantities lost in urine Regulating blood volume and blood pressure l releasing erythropoietin and renin and regulated volume of water lost in urine 0 Stabilization of blood pH Conserving valuable nutrients by preventing their excretion Eliminating organic waste products Synthesizing calcitrol stimulates calcium ion absorption by the intestinal epithelium Assisting liver in detoxifying poisons and deaminating amino acids during starvation l Consists of Kidneys perform excretory functions produce Urine Ureters urine travels through when leaves the kidneys Urinary Bladder urine is temporarily held here Urethral urine travels out of the body 0 The Kidneys l Position in maintained by Overlapping peritoneum Contact with adjacent visceral organs 0 Supporting connective tissues 3 layers 0 FIBROUS CAPSULE outer later of collagen fibers maintains shape and provides mechanical protection 0 PERINEPHRIC FAle adipose tissue surrounds fibrous capsule o RENAL FASCAanchors the kidney to surrounding structures 0 Super cial Anatomy of the Kidney l HILUM medial indentation ENTERY point for the RENAL ARTERY and exit of RENAL VElNERETER l RENAL CAVITY internal cavity within the Kidney o Sectional Anatomy of the Kidney l Kidney Interior contains 0 Renal cortex outer layer of kidney 0 Renal Medullainternal to the cortex made of distinct conical or triangular structures RENAL PYRAMIDS 0 Base of each pyramid RENAL PAPILLA projects into the renal sinus o RENAL COLUMNS separate adjacent pyramids o RENAL LOBE where urine is produced via NEPHRONS contains l A renal pyramid overlying area of renal cortex and adjacent tissues of the renal column 0 Renal sinus Blood Supply to the Kidneys l Receive blood from a RENAL ARTERY originates along the lateral surface of the abdominal aorta When reaching the Renal Sinus branches into SEGMENTAL ARTERIES and then into INTOLOBAR ARTERIES penetrate the brous capsule ad into the renal columns I From nephrons blood enters a network of venules and small veins that converge on the INTERLOBULAR VEINS Innervation of the Kidneys l Kidneys and Ureters are innervated by RENAL NERVES Mostly from the sympathetic postganglionic bers from the superior mesenteric ganglion l RENAL NERVES Enter each kidney at the hilum and follow branches of the renal arteries to reach individual nephrons Histology of Kidneys l NEPHRONljBasic structural and functional unit of the kidney Structure And Function of the Nephron l RENAL CORPUSCLE Contains the capillary knot of the gomeruus the expanded initial segment of the renal tubule GLOMERULAR CAPSULEBROWMAN s CAPSULE Glomerular capillaries are connected to the blood stream 0 Blood arrives via Afferent arteriole and leaves via Efferent Arteriole Filtration occurs as blood pressure forces uid and dissolved solutes out of the gomeruus and into the capsular space 0 The connection between the parietal and visceral epithelia lies at the VASCULAR POLE Filtration process involves passage across 3 barriers o Capillary endotheliumljfenestrated capillaries o Basal aminavery thick semipermeable I May encircle two or more capillaries MESANGIAL CELLS provide physical support engulf organic material that could clog it and regulate the diameters of the capillaries play a role in the regulation of ow and ltration of gomeruar blood 0 Glomerular epithelium lcontains PODOCYTES specialized cells that wrap around the capillaries which are separated from the basal lamina via FILTRATION SLITS very narrow potentially useful ltrates that pass through are reabsorbed by the PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE l PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE PCT Primary function absorption First part of the renal tubule Entry lies opposite to the vascular pole at the TUBULAR POLE Apical surfaces are lined with microvilli increasing surface of reabsorption Actively absorb organic nutrient ions and plasma proteins from the ltrate o Osmotic forces pull water across the wall of PCT and into the interstitial fluid PERITUBULAR FLUID l NEPHRON LOOP The bend where the convoluted tubule ends and the renal tubule turns to the medulla Descending limb travels in the medulla toward the renal pelvis Ascending limb returns toward the cortex 0 Each of the limbs contains a thick and thin segment referring to the thickness or thinness of surrounding epithelium l Thick ascending limb contains ACTIVE TRANSPORT mechanisms that pump sodium and chloride ions out of the tubular uid I Think ascendingdescending limbs freely permeable to water but almost impermeable to ions and other solutes High osmotic concentration surrounding the nephron loop osmotic ow of water out of the nephron 0 Water is absorbed by l VASA RECTA return the liquid to the general circulation Net effect reabsorbs an additional 25 of the water from the tubular uid and an even higher of the sodium and chloride ions The remaining water waste and ions ltered at the glomerulus remain in the nephron loop and enter the DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE Establishes very high solute concentration I DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE DCT Passes between the efferent and afferent arterioles Primary function Secretion Important site for 0 Active secretion of ions acids and other materials 0 Selective reabsorption of sodium and calcium ions from tubular uid 0 Selective reabsorption of water helps concentrate tubular uid 0 Sodium transport activities are controlled by circulating levels of ALDOSTERONE secreted by the Suprarenal Cortex l JUXTAG LOMERULAR COMPLEX MACULA DENSA cells that monitor electrolyte concentration in tubular uid 0 Closely associated with unusual bers in the wall of the afferent arterioe JUXTAGLOMERULAR CELLS EXTRAGLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS occupy the space between the glomerulus DCT and efferentafferent arterioles TOGETHER all 3 parts form the COMPLEX 0 An endocrine structure that secretes 2 hormones renin and erythropoietin l Elevate blood levels hemoglobin levels and blood pressure I Restore normal rates of ltrate production I THE COLLECTING SYSTEM Function transports tubular uid from the nephron to the renal pelvis makes nal adjustments to its osmotic concentration and vmume Consists of connecting tubules collecting ducts and papillary ducts Individual connecting tubules connect nephron to a collecting duct Collecting ducts drain both cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons Collecting ducts converge empty into larger papillary duct empties into a minor calyx in the renal pelvis Low permeability the regulatory mechanism changes the permeability of the collecting ducts to water 0 ADH Antidiuretic hormone l responsible for controlling the permeability of the collecting system I Higher ADH greater amount of water absorbed and the urine is MORE concentrated 0 Structures For Urine Transport Storage and Elimination l Filtrate modi cation and urine production end when the uid enters the minor calyx l The rest of the urinary system is responsible l transport storage and elimination of the urine l Transitional epithelium can tolerate cycles of distension and contraction without damage Minormajor calyces renal pelvis ureters urinary bladder and the proximal urethra o URETERS Muscular tubes that extend from the kidney to the urinary bladder Continuation to the renal pelvis through the hilum Approach taken by ureter to reach the bladder wall differs in men and women 0 Size nature and position of reproductive organs URETERAL OPENING l slitlike helps prevent back flow or urine towards ureter and kidney when bladder contracts 0 Wall consist of 3 parts 0 Inner mucosa lined by transitional epithelium 0 Middle muscular layer made of smooth muscle 0 Outer connective tissue layer continuous with fibrous capsule and peritoneum o URINARY BLADDER Hollow muscular organ Function temporary storage reservoir for urine Mucosa lining of the urinary bladder is thrown into folds l RUGAE Disappear when the bladder stretches and lls with urine TRIGONEl act as a funnel that channels urine into the urethra when the urinary bladder contracts NECK OF URINARY BLADDEle the region surrounded the urethral opening contains a muscular INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER Provides involuntary control over the discharge of urine from the bladder DETRUSOR MUSCLEl formed by the 3 muscle layers of the bladder contraction of the muscle compresses the urinary bladder and expels its content into the URETHRA o URETHRA Female short Male long 3 parts prostatic membranous and spongy Urethras In both the urethra passes through the urogenital diaphragm forming the EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER Under voluntary control via pudenal nerve Must be voluntarily relaxed to permit urination l Male and Female histology differl male s is more complicated o MICTURITION REFLEX AND URINATION l Urine reaches the urinary bladder via peristaltic contractions of the ureters l MICTURITION REFLEX coordinates the process of urination when the bladder actually empties Initiated by stretch receptors in the bladder wall CHAPTER 24 The Respiratory System 0 Cells obtain energy primarily thought aerobic metabolism l Requires oxygen amp produces carbon dioxide 0 Cardiovascular systeml provides the link between the interstitial fluids around peripheral cells and the gasexchange surfaces of the lungs 0 Respiratory systemlj facilitates the exchange of gases between the air and the blood I Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the peripheral tissues l Accepts Carbon dioxide from tissue and carries it to the lungs to be eliminated 0 Overview of the Respiratory system I SYSYTEMl nose nasal cavity sinuses larynx pharynx trachea and smaller conducting passageways that lead to the gaschambers l TRACTairways that carry air to and from these surfaces 0 Conducting portion nasal cavity entrance to the smallest bronchioles of the lungs Respiratory portionljrespiratory bronchiole and air sacs AKA Alveoli where gas exchange occurs l UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM nose nasal cavity paranasal sinuses and pharynx Filter warm and humidify air I LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEMl larynx trachea bronchi and lungs


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StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.