HSC160 Week 11
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 160 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Otiam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
HSC160 WEEK 11 Chapter 11: CVD, CANCER, DIABETES Chapter 11 Quiz Bold Questions are Iclicker questions 1. A stroke results: a. WHEN BLOOD FLOW IN THE BRAIN HAS BEEN COMPROMISED, EITHER DUE TO BLACKAGE OR HEMORRHAGE 2. Which of the following is correct about metabolic syndrome? a. IT INCLUDES HIGH FASTINF BLOOD GLUCOSE, OBESITY, HIGH TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS, HYPERTENSION, AND OTHER RISKS 3. The “bad” type of cholesterol found in the bloodstream is known as: a. LOWDENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) 4. What does a person’s cholesterol level indicate? a. THE FORMATION OF FATTY SUBSTANCES CALLED PLAQUE, WHICH CAN CLOG THE ARTERIES 5. When cancer cells have metastasized: a. THEY HAVE SPREAD TO OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY 6. A cancerous neoplasm is a: a. MALIGNANT GROUP OF CELLS OR A TUMOR 7. “If you are a male and smoke, your chances of getting lung cancer are 23 times greater than those of a nonsmoker.” This statement refers to a type of risk assessed statistically known as: a. RELATIVE RISK 8. The more serious and lifethreatening type of skin cancer is: a. MELANOMA 9. Which of the following is true of type 2 diabetes? a. IT IS CORRELATED WITH OBSETITY AND SEDENTARY LIFE 10. By 2050, experts predict more than _______ Americans will have diabetes. a. 1 IN 3 ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Cardiovascular System: he network of organs and vessels through which blood flows as it carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body a. Heart, arteries, arterioles, veins, capillaries 2. Heart: a. Four chambers work together to circulate blood constantly throughout the body b. The two large chambers (atria), receive blood from the rest of the body; the two lower chambers (ventricles), pump the blood out again. Small valves regulate steady, rhythmic flow of blood and prevent leakage or backflow between chambers 3. How the blood flows: a. Arteries: i. Carry blood away from the heart. Branch off from the heart and divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, then even smaller capillaries b. Capillaries: i. Thin walls permit an exchanged of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products with body cells. c. Veins: i. Transport carbon dioxide and other waste products to the lungs and kidneys d. Sinoatrial node (SA node): i. Serves as a natural pace maker (average 70/80 beats per minute) 1. Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cave 2. Blood moves from the right atrium into the right ventricle; from there it is pumped through the pulmonary arteries into the lungs 3. Blood picks up oxygen and discards carbon dioxide in the lungs; it then goes through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium 4. Oxygenated blood is forced from the left atrium into the left ventricle ; from there it is pumped through the aorta into the rest of the body’s blood vessels ___________________________________________________________________________ 112 Cardiovascular Disease: 1. Many CVDrelated deaths are sudden cardiac deaths, cardiac arrest a. 15% of men and 64% of women who die did not experience symptoms 2. CVD has claimed the lives of more women than men every year since 1984. Only among people aged 2039 is CVD significantly more prevalent among men than women 3. Among women, African American, Asian, and Pacific islander have the highest percentage of CVD deaths 4. Among men, Asian/pacific islander and African American have the highest percentage of CVD deaths 5. American Indian and Alaskan natives have the lowest percentage deaths from CVD a. World Health Organization says CVD accounts for 30% of all deaths globally b. Over 80% of the world’s deaths from CVD occur in low/middle income countries 113 Hypertension 1. Prehypertension: high blood pressure that is above normal, yet not in the hypertensive range 2. Hypertension: refers to high blood pressure, the higher your blood pressure, the greater your risk for CVD. (few symptoms) a. Treatment: i. Dietary changes (reduced sodium and caloric intake) ii. Weight loss iii. Medications iv. Regular excercise 3. Systolic pressure: (the top number of your blood pressure) the pressure applied to the walls of the arteries when the heart contracts, pumping blood to the rest of the body a. Systolic BP: i. Increases with age/ the most common form of high blood pressure 4. Diastolic pressure: (the bottom number of your blood pressure) the pressure applied to the walls of the arteries during the heart’s relaxation phase, when blood reenters the chambers of the heart in preparation for the next heartbeat 114 Atherosclerosis 1. Atherosclerosis: fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin build up in the inner lining of an artery a. Often called coronary artery disease (CAD) b. Treatment: focuses on lifestyle changes, drugs that reduce the risk of plaque, medical procedures to open vessels or surgery to open clogged vessels. 2. Ischemia: reduced flow of blood and limited blood and oxygen in heart 3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): Occurs in the lower extremities (feet, calves, legs, arms) a. Symptoms: pain and aching in the legs, calves, or feet upon walking or exercising b. Leading cause of disability in people over 50 & effects people who sit sedentary for long amounts of time most 105 CVD 1. CVD: the greatest killer, accounting for 16 deaths in US a. Heart attack: involves an area of the heart that suffers permanent damage because its normal blood supply has been blocked. This is brought on by coronary thrombosis (clot) i. Signs/symptoms: 1. Crushing or squeezing chest pain 2. Pain radiating down arm, neck, jaw, 3. Shortness of breath, nausea, discomfort in back, neck, or jaw 4. Weakness or fatigue b. Coronary Thrombosis: narrowing of artery that blocks a coronary artery c. Embolus: a dislodged clot that moves throughout the artery d. Collateral circulation: a form of selfprevention that allows an affected heart muscle to cope with damage 106 Stroke 1. Stroke: occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted, killing brain cells which have little capacity to heal or regenerate a. Ischemic: caused by plaque or clot that reduces blood flow b. Hemorrhagic: due to bulging or rupture of a weakened blood vessel i. Aneurysm: the most common type of hemorrhagic stroke c. Followed by transient ischemic attacks (TIA’s) i. Brief interruptions of the brain’s blood supply that cause temporary impairment 2. Blood vessel disorders that can lead to Stroke: a. Thrombus: a blood clot forms inside blood vessel and blocks the flow of blood at its origin b. Embolus: a blood clot that breaks off from its point of formation and travels in the blood stream until it lodges in a narrowed vessel and blocks blood flow c. Hemorrhage: occurs when a blood vessel bursts allowing blood to flow into the surrounding tissue or between tissue d. Aneurysm: the bulging of a weakened blood vessel wall 117 Other Cardiovascular diseases: 1. Angina Pectoris a. Occurs when there is not enough oxygen to supply the heart muscle, resulting in chest pains or pressure 2. Arrhythmias a. An irregularity in heart rhythm that occurs when the electrical impulses in your heart that coordinate heartbeat do not work properly (Over the course of a life time it is common to experience this) i. Fibrillation: heart beats in a sporadic pattern that causes extreme inefficiency in moving blood through the cardiovascular system (can be fatal) 3. Congestive Heart Failure a. When the heart is damaged and cant pump enough blood to supply body tissues, fluids may begin to accumulate in various parts of the body i. Most noticeable in lungs, feet, ankles, and legs 4. Congenital and Rheumatic Heart Disease a. Congenital cardiovascular defect: can be relatively minor. Caused by valve irregularities b. Rheumatic heart disease: attributed to rheumatic fever, an inflammatory disease caused by an unresolved infection of the throat (strep throat). i. Can affect connective tissues of heart, joints, brain, skin 1111 Diagnosing and Treating CVD 1. CVD Diagnostic Techniques a. Electrocardiogram: records heart’s electrical activity b. Angiography: a thin tube called a catheter is threaded through the heart arteries, a dye is injected, and an Xray is taken o identify blocked areas c. PET scan: produces 3D images of the heart as blood flows through it 2. Surgical options a. Coronary bypass surgery: a blood vessel is taken from another site in the patient’s body and implanted to bypass blocked coronary arteries and transport blood – heart tissue b. Angioplasty: a catheter is threaded through blocked heart arteries. This catheter has a balloon at the tip which is inflated to flatten fatty deposits against arterial walls c. Stent: a steel mesh tube inserted to prop open an artery 1112 Cancer 1. Cancer: the name given to a large group of disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells a. Benign: harmless b. Malignant: cancerous 2. Four categories: a. Carcinomas: epithelial tissues are most common sites for cancers i. Affect the outer layer of the skin and mouse as well as mucous membranes b. Sarcomas: occur in mesodermal layers of tissues i. Affect bones, muscles, connective tissues ii. Form solid tumors c. Lymphomas: develop and metastasize in lymphatic system i. Hodgkin’s disease ii. Form solid tumors d. Leukemia: cancer of the bloodforming parts of the body, particularly bone marrow and spleen i. Nonsolid tumor ii. Abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells 1115 Lung Cancer 1. Leading cause of death in both men & women in the US 2. Symptoms: a. Persistent cough, blood streaked sputum, vocal change, chest pain/back pain, pneumonia or bronchitis 3. Treatment: a. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted biological therapy 1116 Colon & Rectal Cancers 1. Colorectal cancer: cancer of the colon and rectum 2. Treatment: a. Radiation, surgery, chemotherapy 3. Risk factors: a. Consumption of red meat & processed meats, family history, diabetes, diets high or low in fiber, smoking, sedentary lifestyles, high alcohol consumption, 4. Prevention: a. Exercise, diet with lots of fruit and other plant foods, maintain a healthy weight, consumption of milk and calcium 1117 Breast Cancer 1. Breast cancer: a group of diseases that cause uncontrollable cell growth in breast tissue, particularly in the glands that produce milk and the ducts that connect those glands to the nipple 2. Detection: mammograms, breast selfexamination (BSE), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3. Symptoms: a lump in breast or surrounding lymph nodes, thickening/dimpling/skin irritation, distortion, retraction or scaliness of the nipple, nipple discharge of tenderness. 4. Treatment: lumpectomy, radical mastectomy, combination of radiation or chemotherapy 5. Risk factors/preventions: a. Breast cancer chances increases with age, family history, menstrual periods that started early or ended late in life, weight gain after the age 18, obesity after menopause, never bearing children or bearing children after the age of 30, inactivity 1118 Skin cancer 1. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer is the US a. Two types: basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas (highly curable) 2. Malignant melanoma: a. The 3 most common form of skin cancer (most deadly) 3. Detections: a. Most commonly found in face, ears, neck, arms, hands, or leg as warty bumps, colored spots, or scaly patches b. ABCD Rule: i. Asymmetry: one half does not match the other ii. Border irregularity: the edges are uneven, notched, or scalloped iii. Color: pigmentation is not uniform. (melanoma vary in color from tan – deep brown, reddish black, or deep blue/black) iv. Diameter: greater that 6mm 4. Symptoms: a. Bleeding, itching, pain or oozing 5. Treatment: a. Depends on type, stage, and location b. Surgery, laser treatments, topical chemical agents, tissue destruction by heat/freezing, surgical removal of regional lymph nodes, radiation, or chemotherapy 6. Risk factors: a. The risk is great for people who: i. Fair skinned, blonde/red/light hair, blue/green/grey eyes ii. Always burn before tanning or burn/peel easily iii. Don’t tan easily but spend a lot of time outside iv. Do not use sunscreen/ experienced sever sun burns before v. Family history 1119 Prostate and testicular Cancer 1. Prostate cancer: most frequently diagnosed cancer in American males a. 16 men will be diagnosed in the US b. Symptoms: weak or interrupted urine flow, difficulty starting or stopping urination, feeling the urge to urinate frequently c. Treatment: digital rectal prostate examination, Prostatespecific antigen (PSA), blood tests d. Risk factors: increasing age, African American and Jamaican heritage, family history, diets with high processed meats or dairy, obesity e. Prevention: eating more fruits/vegetables (tomatoes and red fruits), follow a balanced diet and maintain a healthy weight 2. Testicular Cancer: one of the most common types of solid tumors found in young adult men a. High risk if white, have HIV/AIDS, or primary relative has it 1120 Other Cancers 1. Ovarian Cancer: fifth leading cause of cancer deaths for women a. Symptoms: feeling bloated, having pain in pelvic area, feeling full quickly, needing to urinate frequently, fatigue, pain during intercourse, unexplained weight loss (all for more than a week or two) 2. Cervical and Endometrial Cancer: a. Paptest screenings: a procedure in which cells taken from cervical region are examined for abnormal activity b. Risk factors: early age intercourse, multiple sexual partners, smoking, STI’s (HPV and herpes), obesity 1121 Cancer Detection: 1. Breast: a. Mammograms 2. Cervix: a. Pap test 3. Colon and Rectum a. Blood tests, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy 4. Prostate: a. Prostatespecific antigen (PSA) test
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