Abnormal Psych, Week 8 Notes
Abnormal Psych, Week 8 Notes PSY 250
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 250 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. George Muugi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Abnormal Psych, Week 8 Notes Chapter 8 Monday, March 21 I. Human Sexuality: It has been a taboo subject for most of history until the mid- 1900s when Alfred Kinsey published a book about human sexuality A. Sexual Function: Four stages—DesireArousalOrgasmResolution. Women can experience multiple orgasms in one go whereas men can typically only experience one at a time B. Sex Differences in Sexual Response: Men do not necessarily have a stronger sex drive than women. They tend to think about and have sex more, but women are biologically more capable of having sex for longer periods of time. Men’s sex drive is often based on physical pleasure and intercourse whereas women include emotional intimacy in their definition of sex drive C. Understanding Sexual Behavior: Age and race can affect ideas about sex and how often it happens. Sexual orientation seems to be primarily based on biology D. Cybersex (pg. 277): No set definition. Because of limited knowledge on the subject, researchers do not even know who’s at risk for cybersex use/over- use II. Gender Dysphoria: Gender dysphoria is when gender identity does not match one’s biological sex. A. Transgender Behavior: When a male wants to be a female and does things a female would do or dresses like a female and vice versa. B. Transsexualism: Wanting to be the opposite sex C. Sex Reassignment Surgery: Procedure that changes one’s physical appearance to match their gender identity. Ex: Chaz Bono (pg. 281) D. Functional Impairment: Cross-gender behavior does not seem to cause any issues, but it can give reason for other kids to bully. Harm can be caused when children are not allowed to engage in the desired behaviors that go along with gender dysphoria. E. Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: Among children, gender dysphoria is equally common among boys and girls. However, adult males are more likely to experience gender dysphoria than adult women. India recognizes a third gender, hijra, which is neither feminine nor masculine. F. Etiology 1. Biological Theories: Male transsexuals have brains that are more similar to heterosexual females than to heterosexual males. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is when the enzyme that produces cortisol and aldosterone is absent. As a result, too much androgen (male hormone) is produced i. Ethics and Responsibility: Dexamethasone is sometimes given to pregnant women to control CAH. Some researchers are wondering it could prevent homosexuality in girls. 2. Psychosocial Theories: Parental rejection due to the parents wanting a boy and having a girl or vice versa possibly plays a role in gender dysphoria. G. Treatment 1. Sex Reassignment Surgery: Three phases—living as the desired gender (at least 2 years), hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery 2. Psychological Treatment: Reinforcing same-gender behavior and punishing cross-gender behavior. This method is no longer used Wednesday, March 23 III. Sexual Dysfunction: Sexual dysfunction is an impairment or absence of some part of sexual response that causes distress and/or functional impairment A. Sexual Interest/Desire Disorder: Absence or lack of interest in sexual activities 1. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Persistent or recurrent lack of sexual thoughts and desires. Factors include negative thoughts about sexuality, low sexual satisfaction, and another sexual dysfunction 2. Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: Greatly reduced or absent sexual arousal and/or interest. Sexual activity loses its excitement. It can be psychological and physiological. i. Subjective sexual arousal disorder: Physical response to stimulation, but no feeling of excitement ii. Genital sexual arousal disorder: Feelings of sexual desire, but no physical response to stimulation iii. Combined sexual arousal disorder: Lack of sexual desire and physical response to stimulation 3. Erectile Disorder: Failure to get and keep an erection during sexual activities regularly B. Orgasmic Disorders 1. Delayed Ejaculation: Delay or failure to ejaculate, despite sufficient stimulation. This is not as common as premature ejaculation 2. Female Orgasmic Disorder: (also called anorgasmia) Trouble reaching orgasm and/or lessened intensity of orgasm 3. Premature ejaculation: When ejaculation occurs within one minute of vaginal penetration and the male is unable to delay ejaculation. Primary premature ejaculation is when a man has had the condition since his first sexual experience and secondary premature ejaculation is a conditioned response C. Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder: Issues with vaginal penetration, vulvovaginal or pelvic pain, fear or anxiety about pain, or tightening or the pelvic floor muscles during intercourse D. Functional Impairment: Sexual dysfunction often results in dissatisfaction. Dysfunction also affects one’s sexual well-being, but does not seem to affect overall well-being. E. Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: It seems that SES might play a bigger role in sexual dysfunction than race. F. Etiology 1. Biological Factors: Hormonal imbalances (hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and menopause) can lower sex hormones and cause a decreased interest in sexual activity. Physical disorders like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease can also lessen sexual desire. Alcohol and drugs can also cause sexual dysfunction, though it is usually temporary 2. Psychosocial Factors: Depression is often associated with sexual dysfunction. Stress in a relationship or negative life events may also contribute to sexual dysfunction G. Treatment 1. Biological Treatments: Testosterone replacement therapy, Viagra, penile implants, and vacuum devices 2. Psychological Treatments: Sex therapy (uses sensate focus and non- demand pleasuring), “stop-squeeze” technique, directed masturbation for females, and systematic desensitization using vaginal dilators for women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder Friday, March 25 IV. Paraphilic Disorders: Sexual interest in things that do not involve genital stimulation/foreplay/intercourse with a physically mature and consenting partner. Anomalous target preferences—deviating from the expected; Anomalous activity preferences A. Paraphilic Disorders Based on Anomalous Target Preferences 1. Fetishistic Disorder: Sexual arousal caused by non-living objects or a non-genital region of the body (ex. feet). Disorder primarily found in men 2. Transvestic Disorder: Cross-dressing. Sexual arousal from wearing women’s clothing (disorder is almost always only found in men) 3. Pedophilic Disorder: Sexual urges or arousal towards prepubescent children. Arousal can be towards both genders. Most common pedophilic acts are genital exposure and fondling, less common is intercourse, and least common is rape/abduction. Girls are victims more often than boys are. Mainly a male disorder, but there are female pedophiles B. Paraphilic Disorders Based on Anomalous Activity Preferences 1. Exhibitionistic Disorder: Flashing. Getting sexual pleasure from exposing one’s self to an unsuspecting victim 2. Frotteuristic Disorder: Sexual arousal gained by rubbing one’s genitals on a nonconsenting person. Often, a fantasy of an emotional relationship with the victim accompanies the “rubbing” 3. Voyeuristic Disorder: “Peeping toms.” Sexual arousal from watching an unsuspecting person undress or have sex. 4. Sexual Masochism Disorder and Sexual Sadism Disorder i. Sexual Masochism Disorder: Sexual arousal from being made to suffer ii. Sexual Sadism Disorder: Sexual arousal from inflicting pain on someone else 5. Functional Impairment: Paraphilic disorders generally do not cause functional impairment unless the person acts on their impulses/desires 6. Developmental Factors: Common age of onset is anywhere from adolescence to young adulthood. Average age of onset is 16, but ranges from 7-38. 7. Etiology: Unknown. Researchers speculate that endocrine abnormalities may play a role 8. Treatment: Plethysmography—used to determine the difference between sexual and nonsexual offenders, but raises many ethical issues. Visual reaction time task is generally used to assess people i. Biological Treatment: Surgical castration (no longer used) and antiandrogen medication reduces sexual drive ii. Psychosocial Treatment: Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy a. Eliminating of decreasing inappropriate sexual arousal: Satiation— exposure to an arousing stimulus for a long enough period that it is no longer arousing. Covert sensitization—imagining the arousing act as well as the negative implications and consequences. b. Olfactory Aversion: Pairing an unpleasant odor with sexual behaviors or fantasies (classical conditioning) c. Enhancing appropriate sexual interest and arousal: Social skills training, couples therapy, and sex education
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