Popular in Food and Dairy Microbiology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Gersbach on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Micr 407 at Clemson University taught by Xiuping Jiang in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Food and Dairy Microbiology in Microbiology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
3.28.16 Indicator microbes can determine both food quality and food safety. Emerging Foodborne Pathogens of Public Health Concern Food safety related Have seen newer pathogens since 70’s & 80’s (E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, etc.) National surveillance of notable diseases – late 1990’s introduced many food safety initiatives o Serotypebased Salmonella surveillance – passive, up to clinician to submit the isolates. Based on out diligent employees are We need to identify any outbreaks We need to track and control these outbreaks We need to use the data to see if there are any trends so we can put more efforts in that area Overall goal: decrease how many people get sick from foodborne illness 1960’s: shellfish outbreaks CDC required state health departments to isolate pathogens and serotype them This helps discover which serotypes cause outbreaks most frequently o Molecular subtyping, such as PulseNet Surveillance system that relies on microbiological subtyping Very quick – identifies sporadic outbreaks CDC maintains a database of all outbreaks o National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring system (NARMS) See trends in antibiotic resistance Helps govt. stop use of certain antibiotics through agencies o Sentinel site surveillance: Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) 1996 Selected cities that represents 15% US population in 2009 Gets more detail information on individual outbreaks Too expensive for entire country These surveillance look at… o 9 foodborne pathogens Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio,Yersinia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora (STEC nonO157 added in 2010) STEC = shiga toxin producing E. coli o Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) Acute onset of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, renal injury, and low platelet count Affects mostly younger populations and elderly o Important b/c Many countries of many sizes is important to stay representative Many different ages also keeps it representative Current Status of Food Safety in US o New estimate of foodborne diseases (CDC) 48 million illnesses (1 in 6 people) #1 cause: Noroviruses (58%) Then salmonella, C. perfringens, campylobacter spp., other 128.000 hospitalizations #1 Salmonella 3,000 deaths #1 Salmonella #2 Listeria 2 kinds… o Bacterial food intoxication: Foodborne illnesses caused by the presence of a bacterial toxin that was already formed in the food Staphyllococcal Botulinium (botulism) o Bacterial food infection: Foodborne illnesses caused by the entrance of bacteria into the body through ingestion of contaminated foods and the reaction of the body to their presence or to their metabolites Factors contributing to the Emergence of foodborne disesaes o Changes in consumption Incrase in fruit and veggie More eating out – 80% of cases o Changes in industry and technology o Changes in travel and commerce o Human demographics Live longer (not necessarily healthier) o Microbial adaptation Developing resistance to antimicrobials Prevention and control of foodborne diseases o Reduce/eliminate fecal contamination o Competitive exclusion o Vaccine development o Control technologies used from farm to table Need effective methods to control contamination o HACCP Need to identify the hazard ahead of time in order to prevent growth or multiplication o Consumer education Temperature control Raw materials vs. cooked products Cooling products as quickly as possible Grampositive Foodborne Pathogens Clostridium botulinium o G+ endosporeforming rod o Anaerobic o Neurotoxin production – can be lethal Unique symptoms o Causes ~55 cases, 42 hospitalizations, 9 deaths per year (2011) Human botulism o Displayed in 4 types Classical foodborne botulism Food Most common Wound botulism Cut on any part of your body and spores get into it, then spores will germinate Infant botulism Adult infectious botulism Serological specificity of neurotoxin – based on antigenicity of neurotoxins o 7 diff types o Type A – humans and animals, heat resistant spores o Type B – humans and animals, some nonproteolytic, heat resistant spores o Type C/D – birds o Type E – humans, fish associated, nonproteolytic, psychrotroph o Type F – humans, only 2 cases o Type G ?, isolated in 70’s argentina 4 Cultural groups o Group I: proteolytic, all type A, and the proteolytic B & F o Group II: non proteolytic – all type E and nonproteolytic B & F o Group III: strains of C & D o Group IV: type G Symptoms: vary from person to person but most commonly.. o Nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, diplopia photophobia, dysphagia, weakness, dizziness, abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea o Neurological symptoms: Respiratory impairment, muscle weakness, paralysis eye muscle movement, dry throat, mouth, and tongue, dilated fixed pupils