Psychology Week 10 Notes
Psychology Week 10 Notes Psych 2010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Personality: Chapter 13 General style of interacting with the world and other people Trait o Stable predispositions States o Temporary modes Historical approach o Why are people behaving this way Application today o Focus on how people behave rather than the underlying reasons of why Psychodynamic Theories Dynamic is the changing forces in unconscious mind Developed by Sigmund Freud o Focused on physical manifestations of problems in behavior Theory of Personality & Approach to Therapy Personality formed by: o Unconscious needs, strivings, and desires o Childhood experiences Formed by about 5 years old Psychodynamic Approach o Approach Conscious Info we are aware of at any given moment Preconscious Info that can, with little effort, be brought into consciousness Unconscious Info that is difficult to access; hidden desires, memories, conflicts The goal is to uncover what is in this part of the mind o Structure of Personality Id Instinctual drives present at birth Pleasure principle I want it, I want it NOW! Ego Mediates id and external world (emerges during infancy) Reality principle Balance the Id and the Superego o Acts as mediator Ego uses defense mechanisms to protect self Superego Emerges between 3-5 years Idealistic Principle o Moral guide/conscience o Internalization of society’s values Inflicts guilt to thwart Id, Ought Self Psychosexual Stages o Early life stages that form personality o Personality established by age 5 o Characteristic sexual focus Caregivers redirect or interfere Fixation due to deprivation or overindulgence o Oral Stages Weaning o Anal Toilet training; anal retentive or anal expulsive personality o Phallic Adults; Oedipus Conflicting dealing toward opposite sex parent is resolved by identifying with same sex parent Development of superego o Latency Expand social contacts o Genital Adult responsibilities Inner Conflicts o Conflict between id, ego, and superego Ego attempts to reconcile Sexual and aggressive impulses o Anxiety over long-lasting conflicts o Defense mechanisms Unconscious reactions to protect person from anxiety an guilt Ego’s way of dealing with anxiety Repression First line of defense Displacement Unacceptable thought or impulse redirect it to something acceptable Reaction formation Unacceptable impulse look opposite Projection Threatening thought attribute it to something/someone else Rationalization Rationalize feelings/impulses Regression Go back to childhood behavior to deal with problems Sublimation Channel unacceptable influences to acceptable expression Neo-Freudians o Students of Freud They differ from him in some ways o Carl Jung Analytic Psychology Typology Personal unconscious = similar to Freud Collective unconscious o Culturally shared ancestral memories o Archetypes Innate ideas, tendencies that shape human behavior Dreams contain archetypes o Personality types Introverts and Extraverts Face outward or inward toward collective unconscious o Alfred Adler Individual Psychology Striving for superiority Compensation o Overcome inferiority by developing abilities o If this fails, leads to Inferiority/Superiority complex Social context and birth order Emphasized role of conscious mind Downplayed sex and aggression Emphasized social interaction Humanistic-Existential Theory Humanistic o Carl Rogers o Phenomenological Approach Understood personal experiences to understand behavior o Inherent goodness and potential for person growth o Incongruence Gap between self-concept and reality o Unconditional Love congruence (Fully Functioning) Openness to experience Existential living (living in the moment) Creative o Conditional Love Incongruence (Maladjusted) Defenses to deal with anxiety Denial, Perceptual distortion Conforming Not Intuitive Existential Theory (dreading the future) o Personality governed by ongoing choices in context of life and death o Pursue superficial answers to deal with angst and dread o Construct defenses on basis of personalities Can prevent personal growth Modern Approaches to Personality Trait Theories o Trait Relatively stable predisposition to behave in a particular and consistent way o Allport Study behavior before unconscious 18000 words to describe personality Inner disposition that causes behavior o Cattell 170 logically different traits 16 basic trait dimensions o Big 5 Dominant theory 5 dimensions to describe personality Personality Theory Openness to Experience ------ Non-Openness Conscientiousness ------ Directedness Extraversion ------ Introversion Agreeableness ----- Antagonism Neuroticism (emotionally unstable) ----- Stability Where does personality come from? o Genetics Heritability of personality: .4 -.6 o Twin Studies 4 Correlation between twin pairs (monozygotic and dizygotic) o Adoption Studies No link between siblings’’ personalities Does childhood influence personality o Temperament Biological tendency to behave in certain way Activity level, emotional reaction, and sociability High activity levels self-efficacy (feel capable) r = .34 Does personality change? o Neuroticism and openness to decrease o Conscientiousness and agreeableness increase o After 50 or 60, most stability o Social Cognitive Theory How the person thinks about situations an behavior in response Perception of environment How do situation and personality interact? Person-Situation Controversy o Situation Strong – masks personality (ex: funeral, date, interview) Weak – show true personality (Ex: going out with friends) o Outcome expectancies Assumptions about consequences of future behavior Combine with goals Locus of control (how much do I feel I’m in control of situation) Internal or external Measuring/Assessing Personality Projective Techniques (subjective interpretation) o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Look at picture and ask questions about it and then they determine personality based on your answers o Rorschach Test Show ink blot and ask what is seen Personality inventories (self-report, lying) o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Adult measure of psychopathology and personality structure One of the first tests developed based on known clinical groups Compared against normal group (visitors and relatives to patients at U of Minn.)-revised because of problems 567 items o NEO Personality Inventory Initially only tested Neuroticism, Extraversion, openness Additional data revealed agreeableness and conscientiousness Assessing Ourselves How do we see ourselves? o What is self Awareness of who we are Self-concept Knowledge about your self Working self-concept o Immediate experience o What makes you unique can change with situation o How do we evaluate ourselves? Self-esteem Evaluative, am I worthy or unworthy Reflected appraisal o Adopt others’ attitudes o How do we protect ourselves? Better-than-average affect Prefer info having to do with ourselves Self-serving bias Take personal credit for success, blame others for failure