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Psychology Week 10 Notes

by: Meagan

Psychology Week 10 Notes Psych 2010

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These notes cover what is going to be on exam 3
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Personality: Chapter 13  General style of interacting with the world and other people  Trait o Stable predispositions  States o Temporary modes  Historical approach o Why are people behaving this way  Application today o Focus on how people behave rather than the underlying reasons of why Psychodynamic Theories  Dynamic is the changing forces in unconscious mind  Developed by Sigmund Freud o Focused on physical manifestations of problems in behavior  Theory of Personality & Approach to Therapy  Personality formed by: o Unconscious needs, strivings, and desires o Childhood experiences  Formed by about 5 years old  Psychodynamic Approach o Approach  Conscious  Info we are aware of at any given moment  Preconscious  Info that can, with little effort, be brought into consciousness  Unconscious  Info that is difficult to access; hidden desires, memories, conflicts  The goal is to uncover what is in this part of the mind o Structure of Personality  Id  Instinctual drives present at birth  Pleasure principle  I want it, I want it NOW!  Ego  Mediates id and external world (emerges during infancy)  Reality principle  Balance the Id and the Superego o Acts as mediator  Ego uses defense mechanisms to protect self  Superego  Emerges between 3-5 years  Idealistic Principle o Moral guide/conscience o Internalization of society’s values  Inflicts guilt to thwart Id, Ought Self  Psychosexual Stages o Early life stages that form personality o Personality established by age 5 o Characteristic sexual focus  Caregivers redirect or interfere  Fixation due to deprivation or overindulgence o Oral Stages  Weaning o Anal  Toilet training; anal retentive or anal expulsive personality o Phallic  Adults; Oedipus  Conflicting dealing toward opposite sex parent is resolved by identifying with same sex parent  Development of superego o Latency  Expand social contacts o Genital  Adult responsibilities  Inner Conflicts o Conflict between id, ego, and superego  Ego attempts to reconcile  Sexual and aggressive impulses o Anxiety over long-lasting conflicts o Defense mechanisms  Unconscious reactions to protect person from anxiety an guilt  Ego’s way of dealing with anxiety  Repression  First line of defense  Displacement  Unacceptable thought or impulse redirect it to something acceptable  Reaction formation  Unacceptable impulse look opposite  Projection  Threatening thought attribute it to something/someone else  Rationalization  Rationalize feelings/impulses  Regression  Go back to childhood behavior to deal with problems  Sublimation  Channel unacceptable influences to acceptable expression  Neo-Freudians o Students of Freud  They differ from him in some ways o Carl Jung  Analytic Psychology  Typology  Personal unconscious = similar to Freud  Collective unconscious o Culturally shared ancestral memories o Archetypes  Innate ideas, tendencies that shape human behavior  Dreams contain archetypes o Personality types  Introverts and Extraverts  Face outward or inward toward collective unconscious o Alfred Adler  Individual Psychology  Striving for superiority  Compensation o Overcome inferiority by developing abilities o If this fails, leads to Inferiority/Superiority complex  Social context and birth order  Emphasized role of conscious mind  Downplayed sex and aggression  Emphasized social interaction Humanistic-Existential Theory  Humanistic o Carl Rogers o Phenomenological Approach  Understood personal experiences to understand behavior o Inherent goodness and potential for person growth o Incongruence  Gap between self-concept and reality o Unconditional Love  congruence (Fully Functioning)  Openness to experience  Existential living (living in the moment)  Creative o Conditional Love  Incongruence (Maladjusted)  Defenses to deal with anxiety  Denial, Perceptual distortion  Conforming  Not Intuitive  Existential Theory (dreading the future) o Personality governed by ongoing choices in context of life and death o Pursue superficial answers to deal with angst and dread o Construct defenses on basis of personalities  Can prevent personal growth Modern Approaches to Personality  Trait Theories o Trait  Relatively stable predisposition to behave in a particular and consistent way o Allport  Study behavior before unconscious  18000 words to describe personality  Inner disposition that causes behavior o Cattell  170 logically different traits  16 basic trait dimensions o Big 5  Dominant theory  5 dimensions to describe personality  Personality Theory  Openness to Experience ------ Non-Openness  Conscientiousness ------ Directedness  Extraversion ------ Introversion  Agreeableness ----- Antagonism  Neuroticism (emotionally unstable) ----- Stability  Where does personality come from? o Genetics  Heritability of personality: .4 -.6 o Twin Studies 4  Correlation between twin pairs (monozygotic and dizygotic) o Adoption Studies  No link between siblings’’ personalities  Does childhood influence personality o Temperament  Biological tendency to behave in certain way  Activity level, emotional reaction, and sociability  High activity levels  self-efficacy (feel capable) r = .34  Does personality change? o Neuroticism and openness to decrease o Conscientiousness and agreeableness increase o After 50 or 60, most stability o Social Cognitive Theory  How the person thinks about situations an behavior in response  Perception of environment  How do situation and personality interact?  Person-Situation Controversy o Situation  Strong – masks personality (ex: funeral, date, interview)  Weak – show true personality (Ex: going out with friends) o Outcome expectancies  Assumptions about consequences of future behavior  Combine with goals  Locus of control (how much do I feel I’m in control of situation)  Internal or external Measuring/Assessing Personality  Projective Techniques (subjective interpretation) o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Look at picture and ask questions about it and then they determine personality based on your answers o Rorschach Test  Show ink blot and ask what is seen  Personality inventories (self-report, lying) o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  Adult measure of psychopathology and personality structure  One of the first tests developed based on known clinical groups  Compared against normal group (visitors and relatives to patients at U of Minn.)-revised because of problems  567 items o NEO Personality Inventory  Initially only tested Neuroticism, Extraversion, openness  Additional data revealed agreeableness and conscientiousness Assessing Ourselves  How do we see ourselves? o What is self  Awareness of who we are  Self-concept  Knowledge about your self  Working self-concept o Immediate experience o What makes you unique can change with situation o How do we evaluate ourselves?  Self-esteem  Evaluative, am I worthy or unworthy  Reflected appraisal o Adopt others’ attitudes o How do we protect ourselves?  Better-than-average affect  Prefer info having to do with ourselves  Self-serving bias  Take personal credit for success, blame others for failure


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