History Week 10 Notes
History Week 10 Notes HIST 1020
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Uncertainty and Anxiety in Post WWI Europe National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP) 5 steps with Hitler’s rise to power o Never commits an act considered illegal o Very careful about doing things legally (step 1) German Worker’s Party originally o Wanted their rivals the Socialists in 1919 NOT socialist + NOT Marxist o Not calling for class-based politics o Name appeals to disposed/powerless Hitler’s training ground o Tremendous orator, clear ideas, help rise up o These symbols important for collective identity Badges/Insignia Flags Uniforms Newspapers The Attack (1927) The Empire (1940) Message out to broader audience 1932: 800,000 party members (Step 2) Formation of New German Coalition Hindenburg is concerned Reichstag supports Nazis Invites Hitler into government serve as Chancellor o Keeps him under Weimar government o Control / very controversial Electoral Support for National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) o 1928: 2% vote o 1932: 33% vote (Step 3) Destruction of Symbol of Weimar Legitimacy: Reichstag Fire (February 1933) Fire here where the legislative body convenes Major symbol for German government Mysterious fire, need to blame someone Hitler wants to capitalize off of tragedy o Blame the communist Widespread Arrests of Communists by Storm Troops Whether or not it was true Sent to first concentration camp Dachau in Germany Eliminate rivals for seats in Reichstag (Step 4) In the Name of Order + Stability Need to expand the power of government to exert control Enabling Act (1933-37) o Martial Law for 4 years o Trade unions dissolved o Political parties dissolved o Concentration camps for dissenters Ex: Dachau (1933) o Passed with 2/3 of Reichstag vote Blessing of Hindenburg and Reichstag (Step 5) Fuhrer of the German Reich and People President Hindenburg dies of lung cancer (2 August 1934) Hitler rises to power o Combines role of chancellor and president Fuhrer o Ultimate authority rested in one person o Rapid rise to power Appealing to Masses Bring people into plan for future Creates ministry of propaganda o Establish Minister of Propaganda – Goebbels o Mythic Nordic descent – Aryan Ideal new German man Building block of new society o Anything operating outside – elimination Propaganda o Women in home competition for males o Looked a certain way encouraged to have children Blond hair, blue eyes German Mother’s Cross o Awarded August 12 in honor of birthday of Hitler’s mother Encouraged to produce Aryan children for the state Pro-natalist Policy Bronze: 4 children Silver: 6 children Gold: 8 children Oath of Hitler Youth o Young boys Join the Hitler youth the future of the state o Girls Join League of German Maidens Preparing young Aryan girls to become future mothers German Workers o men working for the betterment of the state o Rearmament controversial Drastically reduce unemployment Creating jobs for people Strength Through Joy o Savings program for a family car Get stamps toward car Volkswagen: “The People’s Car” Designed with Ferdinand Porsche in 1934 Affordable Vacations in Germany Gain national pride Created a freeway – Autobahn Want people to meander and see beautiful German scenery Mass Spectacle o Nazi Party Congress at Nuremberg, 1934 o Film Triumph of the Will Possibly most controversial movie ever made Director is Leni Riefenstahl Used as weapon of war o Hitler wanted people to see that Germany is Powerful, unified, prideful, Hitler, Nazis, Ready o She is accused of war crimes after WWII Expand German State o Reclaim lost German patrimony o Lebensraum Idea that German’s needed room to live (resources, space) in order to achieve autarky o Autarky Self-determination Expansionist Vision o 1925 Mein Kampf Plan for German expansion Hitler’s autobiography Has his sights set on Russia Lebensraum: “Room to Live” o Justify as patrimony because there are German speaking people living in these places Rhineland Austria Sudetenland Poland Nazi Repudiation of the Versailles Treaty o Versailles Treaty (1919) No submarines, aircraft, or tanks Volunteer Army (limit 100,00 men) o German Rearmament (1935) Luftwaffe (German Air Force) Military draft = 550,000 troops o Hitler helping unemployment is technically illegal because of Versailles Treaty Test #1: Remilitarization of the Rhineland o 7 March 1936 o Took the Rhineland Wanted to see what Great Britain and France would do Condemnation but NO ACTION Rome-Berlin Axis o November 1936 o Meets with Mussolini in Italy o Trying to make sure he can secure the Balkans when he makes a push into Russia in the future Test #2 Nazi Annexation of Austria o 13 March 1938 o Personal and political gain o France and Great Britain still do nothing Test #3 Nazis Invade Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) o 15 September 1938 o Has German speaking minority and resources o France and Great Britain call conference to discuss Want to use diplomacy/negotiation in Munich Want to bring an end to Hitler’s expansionism Don’t want war Munich Conference (September 1938) o Meeting that includes Mussolini (Italy), Deladier (France), Chamberlain (England), and Hitler (Germany) o Hitler promises to stop invading o German permitted to occupy the Sudetenland Home to 3.5 million ethnic Germans o Confirmed Hitler’s perception that Western democracies “weak” o Paved way for German occupation of rest of Czechoslovakia (March 1939) Czechs refer to it as “Munich Betrayal” o Hitler even more convinced of his “Infallibility” Peace in Our Time o British Prime Minister Chamberlain comes back saying peace from Germany o Both Hitler and Chamberlain saw Munich conference as victory WWII: Nationalist Dreams Why Appeasement? Policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance Deep-seated fear of war among people who had lived through World War I o Munich conference linked to this Fear of Communism (Hitler (anti-communist) better than Stalin) o Relativism Belief that Hitler would honor his promise to only incorporate German- speaking people o Reference to Mein Kampf always thought about the East Nazi-Soviet Pact (23 August 1939) Want to neutralize Eastern front through diplomacy Doesn’t want soviet union and German military fighting Why did the USSR sign a non-aggression pact with the Nazis? o Poland nearby but USSR not prepared for war (buy time) o Secret clause within treaty (not known until 1991) USSR + Germany will divide eastern Europe into 2 “spheres of influence” USSR: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Eastern Poland Germany: Lithuania, Western Poland o Want them to stay out of what Germany is doing and don’t come to the aid of the West Test #4: The Final Straw: The Nazis Invade Poland 1 September 1939 Impossible for the West not to act France and Germany declare war 3 September 1939 WWII: “Lightening War” Hitler uses Blitzkrieg Huge wave of troops known as the Panzer Division o Self-contained and self-sustaining o Eliminate dependence on supplies 300 tanks Troops Supplies Air Support (Luftwaffe) Regular Infantry Units Extremely fast approach to warfare/expansion France’s Maginot Line Construction of line of fortifications along Eastern border By time to mobilize if invaded from the East Thinking focused on past, in WWI o Stationary = problem o If line is breeched, not effective Dunkirk Evacuation 1940 Germans move so quickly o Divides allied forces o Some troops stranded on beach Private fisherman volunteer to use boatlifts to move troops back to safety o 330,000 allied troops evacuated (mostly British) Germany headed towards Paris Vichy France (2 June 1940-1944) Hitler able to achieve goal of getting Paris in 6 weeks (like WWI plan) France had to make controversial decision o Collaborate with Germany with a regime called Vichy France Marshal Petain is Chief o Germany takes back Alsace Loraine Put under direct German Administration Achieved victory now look towards Great Britain Battle of Britain June-September 1940 Development of the royal air force and an advanced warning system (radar) Germany’s first defeat Churchill casted as a hero (v for victory) First crack in Nazi invincibility Delayed Nazi Invasion of USSR: Operation Barbarossa 22 June 1941 / 1800 mile front Hitler wants to take Stalingrad o Industrial city, important resources Mussolini is useless in securing Balkans Want to avoid soviet winter (should start invading around march) but they are slowed down in Balkans Winter’s Victory (1941) Early Russian winter Don’t have the correct uniforms for blending into snow or keeping war o Soviets have white overcoats German Defeat at Stalingrad February 1943 Los the entire German Sixth Army = 200,000 men 1.5 million total casualties U.S. soon entering war Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Japanese expansion into East Asia o Economic security, pan-Asian prosperity sphere, materials, minerals, resources o Oil and rubber Step 1: Japan’s Expansionist Vision China U.S. opposes action / send aid to China Recognize Chiang-Kai-Shek Nationalist Government No war Step 2: Tripartite Pact 27 September 1940 Alliance between Germany (Hitler), Italy (Ciano), and Japan (Kurusu) o Form axis powers o Military alliance that recognize spheres of influence Step 3: The New Order in East Asia Nazi Lightning victories in (April-June) 1940 Opportunity for Japanese expansion in European colonial possession in Asia o Want Dutch East Asia and British Malaya for oil and rubber U.S. Embargo of Japan July 1941 U.S. tries to stay neutral and out of the war Has to secure the Philippines Exploit vulnerability of needing oil What is at stake? o For U.S. Japan’s alliance to Germany and Italy via Tripartite Pact Japan wanted economic control and responsibility for Southeast Asia U.S. citizenry no interest in war in East Asia = economic sanctions o For Japan 80% of oil from U.S. Only 2 months of oil reserves Pearl Harbor: A Date Which Will Live in Infamy 7 December 1941 Japan strikes back and bombs Pearl Harbor Until the Axis Powers Surrender Unconditionally Axis Powers o Germany, Italy, Japan Allied Powers o U.S., Great Britain, USSR German Declaration of War against U.S. = 11 December 1941 Galvanizing Public Support for War Use film as Weapon of War o Need support on the home-front o Capra = director of film “Why We Fight” Task from US war department Serve as answer to triumph of will and galvanizing support Use animation because want everyone’s support including children Present Great Britain as strong for holding off the German’s and in turn saving the U.S. from being next Shows war that is dynamic Airplanes, fighting, bullets, action Everyone invested o Including women and children
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