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Bio notes 3.29.16

by: Shayla Pedigo

Bio notes 3.29.16 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo

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About this Document

These are good for if you missed lecture or need a recap.
Athena Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, Biology 11100, Bio
25 ?




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Bio 3.29.16 notes Circulation & Gas Exchange Exchange Surfaces & Cells Recall that small molecules (like O a2d CO ) ca2 move b/w cells & their surroundings via diffusion Net movement results when concentration gradient results in net movement of molecules Net movement of molecules is very slow, especially for distances greater than a few millimeters. Relationship b/w diffusion time & distance puts constraint on animal body plans. Natural selection resulted in 2 basic adaptations that allow effective exchange for all cells 1. Body size & shape that places many or all cells in direct contact w/ environment • allows each cell to directly exchange w/ surroundings • found only in invertebrates like cnidarians & flatworms (relatively simple) Natural selection resulted in 2 basic adaptations that allow effective exchange for all cells 2. A circulatory system • moves fluid b/w each cell’s immediate surroundings & body tissues where exchange w/ environment occurs • found in all other animals Types of Exchange Surfaces Gastrovascular Cavities In simple invertebrates without circulatory systems, this distributes molecules throughout the body Often combined w/ flat or narrow body to facilitate diffusion w/ environment Circulatory Systems Have 3 basic components: 1. Circulatory fluid 2. Interconnecting vessels 3. Muscular pump (heart) Open Circulatory System Found in arthropods & some mollusks • fluid is hemolymph, which is also interstitial fluid that bathes body cells • heart pumps hemolymph through vessels into sinuses (spaces around organs) • exchange w/ body cells in sinuses Found in arthropods & some molluscs • heart relaxation pulls hemolymph back through vessels • body movement sometimes squeezes sinuses & aids circulation Closed Circulatory System Closed- found in annelids (incl. earthworms), cephalopods (incl. octopus), & all vertebrates • fluid called blood, different from interstitial fluid • blood confined in vessels • 1 or more hearts pump blood into large vessels that branch into smaller and smaller ones, until they infiltrate organs • chemical exchange b/w blood & interstitial fluid, and b/w interstitial fluid & body cells Both types of systems are widespread, indicating each has evolutionary advantages in some environments • lower pressure associated w/ open systems makes them less costly (energy) to maintain • some invertebrates use pressure in open system to aid limb movement Both types of systems are widespread, indicating each has evolutionary advantages in some environments • closed systems have relatively high blood pressure, enabling effective delivery of O &2nutrients to cells of large, active animals • closed systems good for regulating blood flow to different organs Organization in Vertebrates Vertebrate circulatory system often referred to as “cardiovascular system,” b/c interactions b/w blood and gases 3 main types of blood vessels; blood flows only one direction, distinguishing each type*: 1. Arteries- carry blood from heart to organs, branch into arterioles in organs, which take blood to capillaries 2. Capillaries- microscopic vessels w/ thin, porous walls; networks called capillary beds take blood into tissues, where gas exchange occurs; eventually converge into venules, which converge into veins 3. Veins- carry blood from organs to heart *The oxygen content of blood in the vessels is not a factor in naming them; only flow direction matters Hearts contain 2 or more muscular chambers 1. Atria- receive blood entering the heart 2. Ventricles- pump blood out of heart Number of heart chambers & degree of separation b/w them differ among groups & are evidence for natural selection Single Circulation • Blood passes through heart once in each complete circuit • Heart has 1 atrium & 1 ventricle • Muscle movement helps increase flow rate, which is otherwise slow b/c blood pressure drops in capillary beds • Found in fishes •    Steps • Blood collects in atrium when entering heart, then transferred to ventricle • Ventricle contraction pumps blood to gills • In gills, net diffusion of O i2to blood & CO out o2 blood • O 2 rich blood leaves gills in capillaries, which converge into vessel that takes it to capillary beds throughout body • Deoxygenated blood returns to heart in veins Double Circulation • Blood passes through heart twice in each complete circuit • Single heart pumps blood through both circuits • Provides fast blood flow to organs b/c heart repressurizes blood after it lost pressure going through capillary beds in lungs/skin. • Found in amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals • Steps 1. Right side of heart sends deoxygenated blood to capillary beds of gas exchange tissues (lungs/skin) 2. Net movement of O into 2lood & CO out of bl2od • Pulmonary circuit: capillary beds involved are all in lungs, like in reptiles & mammals • Pulmocutaneous circuit: capillary beds are in lungs and skin, like in most amphibians 3. O -2ich blood goes to left side of heart, where contraction sends it to organs & tissues throughout body (systemic circuit) 4. Deoxygenated blood, nutrients, & wastes return to right side of heart Evolutionary Variation in Double Circulation Amphibians (frogs, salamanders, etc.) have a 3-chambered heart (2 atria, 1 ventricle) • Ridge in ventricle diverts 90% O -ri2h blood from left atrium to systemic circuit, & deoxygenated blood from right atrium to pulmocutaneous circuit • When underwater, animal can partially shut off blood flow to temporarily ineffective lungs Amphibians (frogs, salamanders, etc.) have a 3-chambered heart (2 atria, 1 ventricle) • Blood flow to skin continues while underwater, which is only site of gas exchange while submerged • This system allows amphibians to stay submerged longer than they’d be able to otherwise, therefore avoiding predators & ambushing prey Alligators, caimans, crocodiles have 4-chambered heart • Pulmonary & systemic circuits connect where arteries exit heart • This allows arterial valves to shunt blood flow away from lungs while not breathing underwater Birds & mammals have same circulatory plan • Heart has 4 chambers- 2 atria, 2 ventricles • Left side of heart receives & pumps only O -rich 2lood • Right side of heart receives & pumps only deoxygenated blood Birds & mammals have same circulatory plan • Does not allow animal to change blood flow to lungs w/out changing it throughout body • This faster, more efficient system allows endothermic birds & mammals (10x as much energy as equal-sized ectotherm) to function at the high rate of activity they maintain • 4- chambered heart evolved separately in birds & mammals, evidence of convergent evolution


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