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Chapter 7 Part 1 Notes

by: Lauren Notetaker

Chapter 7 Part 1 Notes PSYC 201

Marketplace > Towson University > Psychlogy > PSYC 201 > Chapter 7 Part 1 Notes
Lauren Notetaker
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About this Document

Start of Chapter 7 notes
Educational Psychology
Dr. Gallihue
Class Notes
educational psychology, chapter 7, Part one




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 201 at Towson University taught by Dr. Gallihue in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Chapter 7 – Behavioral & Social Cognitive Approaches Learning – somewhat permanent change in behavior that happens through experience There are 2 types:  Associative  Observational For associative learning there are 2 kinds of conditioning:  Classical – between 2 stimuli  Operant – linking a behavior with a consequence An example of classical conditioning is going to the doctor’s office and expecting to get a shot.  This is because we associate the doctor’s office with having to get a shot, both are stimuli that  often occur together. An example of operant conditioning is an athlete doing well at competitions and receiving  medals for doing well. The behavior would be doing well at competitions and the consequence  would be being awarded medals for performing the behavior. Generalization – responding in a similar way to different stimuli Ex) crying when stung by a bee and crying when seeing a flower  Discrimination – responding differently to similar stimuli Ex) Excited when seeing a football uniform but anxious when seeing a police uniform Classical Conditioning Principles Extinction – weakening conditional response in the absence of unconditional stimulus Ex) Palov rang the bell but did not present the food resulting in the dogs no longer salivating  when the bell was rung Systematic desensitization – reduces anxiety by convincing the person to associate deep  relaxation with successful visuals of increasingly anxiety­producing situations E. L. Thorndike Connectionism – all learning can be explained by the bonds formed between stimuli & responses There are 3 laws:  Readiness – learn when ready  Exercise – learn through practice  Effect – association is strengthened by satisfaction & weakened by discomfort Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner  Environment reinforces/ eliminates behavior  Focus on responses & consequences  The consequences of a behavior change the odds of that behavior’s occurrence Positive Reinforcement – pleasant stimulus is used to increase behavior  Ex) Getting money for good grades


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