Psychology Week 11 Notes
Psychology Week 11 Notes Psyc 2010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psychology Week 11 Notes (March 28 - April th st 1 ) Humanistic Theory Unconditional positive regard is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does. - Ex) Instead of forcing your child on a certain career, you let them choose what they love to do and support them. Criticisms of Humanism - Many of the same criticisms as Freud. - Mainly philosophical, not scientific - Concepts are vague & subjective o Focused on individuals rather than general trends. - Believed people were fundamentally good and people are in fact generally nice to others. Approach to measurement: - Idiographic approach: Each person is a snowflake and cannot be compared to others. o Case study: observations of 1 person doesn’t tell us anything about other people. - Nomothetic approach: understand how an individual compares to others & measure fundamental emotional characteristics to predict future behavior. o Trait Theory: there are some really important personality characteristics called the big 5. Traits are stable characteristic patterns of behavior that can be biologically based. Ex) Measure of surgency: extrovert vs introvert. some people fall at the endpoints but most are in the middle. o Traits along a continuum: take 100 extroverts, 100 introverts, and 100 people in the middle. The extroverts will all have similar behavior; But the extroverts and introverts will have very different behavior. This allows us to study consistent behaviors & the science of personality. o The Big 5: Conscientiousness- “end points” are high conscientiousness and low conscientiousness Organized (high) vs disorganized (low) Careful (high) vs careless (low) Self-disciplined (high) vs weak-willed (low) Extraversion vs Introversion Social vs retiring Fun-loving vs sober Affectionate vs reserved Neuroticism- anxiety emotions Worried vs calm Insecure vs secure Self-pitying vs self-satisfied Agreeableness Soft-hearted vs ruthless Trusting vs suspicious Helpful vs uncooperative Ex) If someone with low agreeableness is in a conflict they’re more likely to use violence and turn aggressive. Openness to new experiences Imaginative vs down to earth Seek variety vs routine Independent vs comforting - How do they identify the big 5? o Lexical approach: they searched the dictionary and found adjectives that were consistent and had a lot of synonyms or antonyms. Then they looked at different cultures and languages to see if the words they had chosen exist in all cultures. 2 o Statistical approach: they took 5 characteristics had participants fill out a questionnaire about themselves and see which were used together. Data driven method: look for patterns in data & see that between traits there are low correlations to show they’re separate and distinct. o Trait Theory Approach: there’s a super-trait (ex: extroversion) with facets or sub-traits (sociability, dominance, assertiveness, activity). People will score around the same between different sub-traits. Biological Basis of Personality - BIS/BAS o Behavioral Inhibition System Right prefrontal cortex (respond to negative consequences) Strongly associated with neuroticism o Behavioral Activation System Left prefrontal cortex (responds to positive consequences) Strongly associated with extraversion o Sensitivity among the 2 vary between humans because of neuroticism o Hormones Testosterone: everyone has it. If you have a lot of it, you will be more aggressive which also means you’ll be low in agreeableness. Oxytocin: everyone has it. If you have a lot, you will trust others and have high agreeableness. - Twin/Family studies o Our personality tends to be more similar to those of our biological relatives Your parents & siblings share about 50% of your genes. 3 Identical (monozygotic) twins share almost 100% of their genes. (monozygotic: 1 egg fertilized that divided into 2) Fraternal (Dizygotic) twins share 50% of genetic material. (Dizygotic: 2 eggs were fertilized at the same time by 2 sperm) o Psychologists compare levels of genetic similarity between fraternal and identical twins & examine their genetic contribution. They also compare twins raised together as well as raised apart (to partial out the environmental influence.) o Concordance: How similar are twins in a twin pair. (Concordance def.: The frequency of a given trait in both members of a pair of twins (Dependent variable)) Ex) Comparing Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) characteristics Height: MZ twins are very close in height and DZ twins aren’t. IQ: MZ twins have closest IQs, but DZ is closer than usual (hinting this is a genetic trait) Heritability: the variance due to genes of a trait Height & weight don’t vary a lot, so they’re determined by genes Neatness varies, so it is not a trait determined by genes If it is not caused by a gene, it is caused by the environment Criticisms of Trait Theory - How many traits are there? There are 5 basic personality groups (OCEAN), but there are thousands of different personality traits 4 o *OCEAN* is just a template to find shat builds peoples personalitith o There could be a 6 personality group: Humility/Honesty, there’s a big debate about it. - The same person might behave differently across situations o Introverts coming out of their shells. - Currently it is accepted that personality does predict behavior, but it’s predictive validity varies based on context o Strong situations: High rules Require a great deal of control over behavior Ex) sitting in church or class o Weak situations: Low rules Less likely to influence someone’s behavior Personality comes out Ex) going to a party or bar Developmental Psychology - To have the capability to make decisions, think, and feel is different across the life span. How does it develop? What happens when we get really old? o 3 types we will study: Social, Cognitive, and Moral developments Social Developments - The need to belong o The fundamental need to form strong and stable interpersonal relationships. o “attachment”: the emotional tie between individuals Ex) young infant & parent 5 o Characterized by a desire for physical contacts (infants want to be held), and by anxiety when separated. o Serves a biological function o Attachment study in Monkeys: Body contact/comfort are important for attachment When given the choice, the baby monkey would choose a cloth monkey mother that didn’t have food vs the wire mother that had milk. When the monkey was stressed it could find security with the cloth mother. Side note: an enriched environment increases brain mass and better ability to learn. Ex) rats raised in a plain lab are dumb but rats raised in a room with bright colors and walls are smart. - Strange Situation Study o Infants have different attachment styles partly due to temperament, but largely due to parenting style. Ex) when the baby cries the parent can hold it to soothe it or just tell it to stop crying. They baby is less likely to cry if the parent only tells it to stop crying. o Tested using Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Theory They took a child and observed it in the presence of their caregiver. A secure child would play and explore the area. An insecure child would stay close to the caregiver. If a stranger entered the room, the secure child would look at it for a few minutes and then lose interest, whereas an insecure child would continually look at the stranger and hid behind the mom. 6 If the caregiver leaves the room the secure child has some distress, but the insecure child would have extreme distress, start crying. - Insecure Attachment o Avoidant attachment: 20% of children have this, little distress when mother leaves and comes back o Anxious/ Ambivalent attachment: 10% of children have this, they’re distressed at separation, but indifferent/ excessive in reassurance seeking at reunion. - Adult Attachment Styles o Shaver & Hazan argue that infant attachment influences later in life adult attachment styles. o Avoidant attachment: avoid closeness & less invested in relationships. Ex) Elsa in Frozen o Anxious/Ambivalent become possessive and jealous. Ex) Ana in frozen o Secure attachment: easy to get close to others, not too dependent, has satisfying relationships. Ex) Olaf Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget 1920s o Children’s logic is systematically different from adults. o Sensitive period: stage in life where a person is most likely to develop. Ex) Learning language: can’t learn after 13 (it’s even hard to learn a second language after 13). Theory of mind starts at age 4. o Stages of development Based largely on errors kids make Children try to make sense of their experiences Schema: concept that organizes and interprets information. Ex) brain works by putting related info in folders. Easy to identify and access. 7 Children are constantly working to modify Schemas. They have the foundation, need to build on it. - Modifying schemas: o Assimilation: take new information and interpret it in terms of existing schemas. Ex) if you give a baby a banana every day until it learns the word banana, then you give it an apple, it will ask for more banana when it means apple. This is because they are both food and children use stimulus generalization. o Accommodation: adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information Existing schemas adapt/expand New schemas developed 4 Stages of Development - Sensorimotor (0-2 years) o Exploring and sensing the world around us. o Information is mostly assimilated. 8
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