Psychology Notes Week 12
Psychology Notes Week 12 PSY 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Andrea Friedrich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psychology Notes Week 12 The Developing Person Reflexes- o babies move head toward human voice o Gaze longer at a drawing of a face like image o Ability to recognize mothers smell o Ability to recognize mothers voice Sense of touch is most well developed Sense of smell is highly developed Sense of taste is nearly fully developed Hearing is fully developed but takes a while to reach full potential Vision is least functional o Rods well developed o Cones take 6 months to develop 1.Physical (motor)Development Maturation- biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience Infancy/Childhood Sequence of motor development is universal Difference in timing Experience has limited effect Adolescence Puberty- o period of sexual maturation, o development of primary and secondary characteristics o Sequence of events more predictable than timing Further development of frontal lobes Adulthood Young adulthood o Relatively minimal physical changes/ signs of aging o Physical decline accelerates gradually Middle Adulthood o Gradual decline in fertility o Sensory abilities start declining o Immune system weakens o 2.Cognitive Development Cognition- mental activities related to thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating Jean Piaget o Children process differently than adults o Changes with age o Type of mistakes Schemas- concepts that organize and interpret information Assimilation- the process by which new information are incorporated into existing schemas Accommodation- process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change Spurts of cognitive change are followed by stability 4 Stages of development 1. Sensimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal Operational Sensimotor Stage Birth to 2 years of age Understanding the world through sensory experiences and physical interactions with objects Object permanence o After 8 months o Objects exist even if they can’t see them Preoperational Stage 2 years to 6-7 years Use symbolic thinking in form of words and images to represent objects and experiences Pretend and make believe Egocentrism- difficulty in perceiving things from a different point of view Theory of Mind- ability to infer mental states o Use of intuitive rather than logical thinking o No grasp of conservation- basic properties of objects such as volume, mass, or quantity Irreversibility- difficulty in reversing an action mentally Concrete Operational Stage Begin to grasp conservation and serial order 6-7 to 11-12 Ability to form mental representations of a series of actions Logical thinking, but reasoning is purely concrete Ability to comprehend mathematical transformations Formal Operational stage About 12 years Abstract thinking Ability to think logically about concrete and abstract problems Hypothetical thinking only 50% reach this stage Paiget Stages Today Children acquire many cognitive skills at earlier stages than Piaget believed More continuous and gradual Cognitive is more complex and variable than proposes Attachment Emotional tie with another person Important of warm contact to infant attachment until 1950’s; assumed infants became attached due to need for nourishment Monkey experiment with robot mom and mom made of fur Konrad Lorenz (1937) o Imprinting- Process which certain animals form attachments during critical period early in life (Ducks following person) o Humans have no regular imprint Types of attachment Strange situation- procedure for examining infant attachment Secure vs. insecure attachment Securely attached o Explore new environment and react positively to strangers o Show distress when mother leaves and happily greet when mom returns Insecurely attached o Anxious resistant, fearful when mother is present/ not soothed upon return o Anxious avoidant, show few sign of attachment, seldom cries when mother leaves, do not look for contact Stranger anxiety o Distress over contact with unfamiliar people o 6/7 months – 18 months Separation anxiety o Distress over being separated from a primary caregiver o Peaks 16 months, disappears 2-3 years
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