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bio notes 3.31.16

by: Shayla Pedigo

bio notes 3.31.16 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo

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About this Document

These are good for if you need a recap or if you missed lecture.
Athena Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, Biology 11100, Bio
25 ?




Popular in Biology

Popular in Biology

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Bio 3.31.16 notes Mammalian Circulation Steps 1. Contraction of right ventricle pushes deoxygenated blood to lungs through pulmonary arteries 2. Blood picks up O 2nd unloads CO in2capillary beds in lungs 3. Oxygenated blood travels from lungs to left atrium through pulmonary veins 4. Oxygenated blood travels from left atrium to left ventricle, which pushes it to organs through systemic arteries 5. Blood travels through systemic capillaries in organs, unloading O 2nd taking up CO 2 6. Deoxygenated blood comes from systemic capillaries in organs & enters right atrium, from which it is passed to right ventricle… Cardiac Cycle Flow of blood through heart is cyclic & beat is maintained by electrical nodes, not CNS Sinoatrial node is pacemaker & initiates impulse Atrioventricular node delays impulse to allow atria to empty Blood Vessel Structure & Function • Central lumen: cavity in center of vessels • Endothelium: single epithelial cell layer inside vessels that reduces resistance to blood flow • Capillaries have walls made only of endothelium, which makes them thin enough to allow diffusion • Arteries & veins have 2 tissue layers surrounding endothelium- connective tissue & smooth muscle Walls of arteries & veins differ slightly • arteries thicker & stronger, accommodating blood pumped from heart at high pressure • arterial walls have elastic recoil that maintains blood pressure when heart relaxes • unlike arteries, veins contain valves that prevent back-flow Maintenance of Blood Pressure Pressure regulated by changes in diameter of arterioles • vasoconstriction: arteriole smooth muscle contracts, decreasing diameter, increasing pressure • vasodilation: arteriole smooth muscle relaxes, increasing diameter, decreasing pressure Capillary Function Capillaries lack smooth muscle, so blood flow to them regulated by 1. arteriole constriction or dilation 2. constriction or dilation of smooth muscle ring at entrance to capillary bed Lymphatic System Returns fluid & blood proteins that diffused into tissues back into blood through capillaries • fluid called lymph once in lymphatic system • lymph composition similar to interstitial fluid • foreign substances (viruses, bacteria, etc.) trapped in lymph nodes for immune system to deal with Blood Composition & Function Blood considered a connective tissue • Plasma: fluid matrix of blood, made of water & electrolytes • Cells: blood contains cellular components • Erythrocytes: red blood cells; carry O ; 2ost numerous cellular component; biconcave shape increases surface area; no nuclei; contain hemoglobin Blood considered a connective tissue • Plasma: fluid matrix of blood, made of water & electrolytes • Cells: blood contains cellular components • Leukocytes: white blood cells; part of immune system; number increases when fighting infection Blood clotting 1. break in blood vessel wall exposes proteins that attract platelets & initiate coagulation 2. coagulation converts liquid components of blood to solid clot 3. coagulant circulates in inactive form called fibrinogen Blood clotting 4. fibrinogen converted to fibrin when instructed by clotting factors 5. fibrin forms threads that structure blood clot 6. anticlotting factors in blood usually prevent clots without injury Cardiovascular Disease Disorders of the heart & blood vessels • range in severity from minor to life-threatening • inflammation also important- although normal, an abnormally high inflammatory reaction can disrupt blood flow Disorders of the heart & blood vessels • cholesterol important- travels in plasma as particles containing thousands of cholesterol molecules & other lipids bound to a protein • low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) deliver cholesterol to cells; high concentration of these is a risk factor for disease • high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) moves excess cholesterol from blood to liver; high concentration of these lowers risk Mammalian Respiratory Systems 1. Air enters through nostrils, filtered by hairs, warmed, humidified, & sampled for odors as it flows through nasal cavity 2. Nasal cavity leads to pharynx, the intersection where paths for food & air cross 3. When food is swallowed, larynx (voice box) tips epiglottis over opening of trachea so food goes to stomach & not lungs 4. Air passes from larynx to trachea, which is held open by bands of cartilage 5. Trachea branches into two bronchi, one leading to each lung 6. In lungs, bronchi branch into finer & finer tubes called bronchioles 7. Alveoli are air sacs clustered at tips of smallest bronchioles, where gas exchange occurs Respiratory Adaptations of Diving Mammals Breath-holding ability • humans: 3min • Weddell seal: 20 min • sperm whale: 20-60 min • elephant seal: 2 hours Some adaptations of deep-diving mammals: • greater volume of blood per unit body mass • higher concentration of myoglobin & hemoglobin • conserve O b2 swimming with little muscular effort by changing buoyancy • blood supply to muscles restricted, muscles use O in myo2lobin Some adaptations of deep-diving mammals: • ATP made via fermentation • lungs collapsible, reduces uptake of N (danger of nitrogen narcosis) • surfactants in lungs aid in post- dive re-inflation • large body size allows for longer & deeper dives b/c of its effect on metabolism


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