Chapter 9 PT 2, Europe
Chapter 9 PT 2, Europe GEOG 1010-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justice Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Carmen Brysch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
How did Europeans Shape the Physical Environment? Europe has an extensive coastline, greater than 100 k miles long. 1/3 of the European Union's population lives within 31 miles of the coast. Science and engineering advancements have helped to keep the oceans, seas and rivers within the areas at bay. Holland's Barriers to the Sea: Video Summary Originally known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Holland is rich in fisheries. Home to Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the world's largest port city), they are being threatened by the surrounding sea. Due to rising temperatures around the world, the ocean temperatures are increasing and could possibly wash away the entire region. Their Risk Factor: 65% of the Netherlands is below sea level (Netherlands literally means low land) Areas are sinking from large scale tectonic changes that have caused glaciers to recede and leave ice melt (and fertile land) in their wake These changes caused the Netherlands to sink farther below sea level. How They Can Fix It: With sea levels rising .067 inches a year, there is the idea that sand dunes can be put in place along the coast, acting as a natural barriers to flooding. A system of drainage ditches has been put in place, using reclaimed land Which has created a series of polder (dry lands that are usually of rectangular fashion) Sand Dunes have been places along the beaches of the Netherlands This particular project is called the Sand Motor Passionate Research Not only do they put sand dunes in place, but they are in favor of protection for those that are there naturally Maeslantkering: The Sea Gate at Rotterdam In the News: Rotterdam is a barometer of the world's economy. "Unless you are a hermit, you own and consume things that have passed through the port of Rotterdam." Europe and the Industrial Revolution Why did the Industrial Revolution Begin in Britain? Although the entire population of Europe in creased and gained a more stable food supply, Britain was the first to convert to subsistence farming, enabling the rural population to migrate to urban areas to work in the industry. The demand for energy (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear). Environmental Impacts: Parcels of land used for industrialization are now unstable for development because of pollutants in the soil These are called brownfields Harsh air pollution is still a really big problem today in Europe In Eastern Europe: o USSR built an industrial sector and established nuclear power Chernobyl Ukraine was one of the cities apart of the industrial sector 4-26-86 a Reactor exploded, causing radioactivity killing about 56 people on impact Thousands of people have died since then Soviets have attempted to block the radiation by having a steel structure (still under construction) in order to contain it Environmental Movement Soon after the 1960's, the United States and Eastern Europe thought it was a good idea to start paying more attention to our environmental impacts and clean up the messes that we've caused. Their efforts put pressures on other countries, such as those of the EU to be more environmentally conscious and cause less damage. Western Europe began cleaning up before the end of the Cold War 1992+: EU guides the environmental policy and funds for clean ups Funfact: In order to join the EU, all of the countries must agree to "Acquis Communitaire" This is the principle of subsidiarity where all decisions and regulations should be made by the government "closest to the citizen." Environmental policies however are difficult to regulate (in terms of telling everyone to get on board) Religion in the Region Recently, the region of Europe was thought of as majority Christian, however, religion/religious diversity has greatly increased, reflecting the multitude of migrants in the area as well as the growth of secularism. As of 2013, 3/4ths of the Continent Identify as Christian, but a projection of 2020 reflects that the number will change to 2/3rds. Why is Christianity So Popular in Europe? During the time of Paul the Tarsus (36 CE), he managed to convert the entire empire to Christianity, going to major lengths such as traveling to port cities in order to diffuse the religion. Eventually, Christianity moved beyond it's hearth, taking popularity to areas outside of the empire. This is a form of hierarchal and contagious diffusion. Branches of Christianity: Southern Mediterranean Branch: Catholic Northern: Protestant Eastern: Orthodox Schism- a division among members of a group that occurs because they disagree on something Why? Protestant Reformation 16th Century: 1500s-1600s People revolted against the catholic churches involvement in politics (involving Martin Luther and Jan Hus) Western Christianity split, splintered from catholic Europe Northern and Central Europe The impact of the Reformation had people finding themselves in places where their religion was not the majority or where it was persecuted Of which sparked some immigration to the Americas Europeans first colonized the Americas, then Africa and then Asia using the excuse of religion (apart of the act of civilizing) as "justification" The Rise of Secularism Def: Indifference to or rejected or organized religious affiliations and ideas (varies from region to region) Why a secular Europe? Reasons why someone is secularist 1 Todays western affluent do not struggle for survival as previous generations 2 Values have liberalized and church has not kept up 3 Sexual abuse by clergy Islam in Europe- Diffused in several waves The three major waves: Muslim moors conquer Southern Spain East Europe with rise of Ottoman empire (Turkey) Muslims then migrate from former colonies and Turkey to cities like France (where more than 10% of the population is now Muslim) 70% of these Muslims are from former colonies in West Africa